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Table 5 Neuropsychiatric features: comparison between NF1 and TSC individuals based on the TAND Checklist

From: The TAND checklist: a useful screening tool in children with tuberous sclerosis and neurofibromatosis type 1

mean age (years)
Range
NF1 subjects
(n = 42)
n (%)
TSC subjects
(n = 42)
n (%)
U Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
p value
11.33 ± 4.25
4–20
11.36 ± 4.19
4–19
880.000 0.986
X2  
Gender
Male 19 (45.2) 19 (45.2) 0.000 1.000
Female 23 (54.8) 23 (54.8) 0.000 1.000
TAND Features
Behavioural level
  Anxiety 21 (50.0) 19 (45.2) 0.191 0.662
  Depressed mood 9 (21.4) 6 (14.3) 0.730 0.393
     Extreme shyness 7 (16.7) 8 (19.0) 0.081 0.776
  Mood swings 11 (26.2) 10 (23.8) 0.063 0.801
  Aggressive outbursts 8 (19.0) 17 (40.5) 4.613 0.032
  Temper tantrums 16 (38.1) 23 (54.8) 2.345 0.126
  Self-injury 1 (2.4) 5 (11.9) 2.872 0.090
  Absent or delayedonset of language 6 (14.3) 17 (40.5) 7.244 0.007
  Repetitive language 4 (9.5) 11 (26.2) 3.977 0.046
  Poor eye contact 2 (4.8) 8 (19.0) 4.086 0.043
Difficult relationship with peers 6 (14.3) 12 (28.6) 2.545 0.111
Repetitive behaviors 3 (7.1) 15 (35.7) 10.182 0.001
Rigidity 11 (26.2) 13 (31.0) 0233 0.629
Overactivity/hyperactivity 16 (38.1) 17 (40.5) 0.050 0.823
Difficulty paying attention or concentrating 25 (59.5) 26 (61.9) 0.050 0.823
 Restlessness 8 (19.0) 10 (23.8) 0.283 0.595
 Impulsivity 22 (52.4) 23 (54.8) 0.048 0.827
 Difficulties with eating 13 (31.0) 13 (31.0) 0.000 1.000
 Sleep difficulties 12 (28.6) 13 (31.0) 0.057 0.811
Scholastic level
 Reading 14 (33.3) 21 (50.0) 2.400 0.301
 Writing 19 (45.2) 23 (54.8) 0.781 0.677
 Spelling 17 (40.5) 19 (45.2) 0.194 0.659
 Mathematics 20 (47.6) 26 (61.9) 1.732 0.421
Neuropsychological level
 Memory 12 (28.6) 11 (26.2) 0.060 0.807
 Attention 25 (59.5) 26 (61.9) 0.050 0.823
 Dual-tasking 16 (38.1) 24 (57.1) 3.055 0.081
 Visuo-spatial tasks 4 (9.5) 8 (19.0) 1.556 0.212
 Executive skills 16 (38.1) 21 (50.0) 1.208 0.272
Getting disoriented 4 (9.5) 12 (28.6) 4.941 0.026
Psychosocial level
 Low self-esteem 15 (35.7) 11 (26.2) 0.891 0.345
 Very high levels of stress in families 14 (33.3) 16 (38.1) 0.207 0.649
Very high levels of stress between parents 8 (19.0) 18 (42.9) 5.570 0.018