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Table 5 Association between baseline factors and changes in T1/ECV

From: Prospective cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in adults with Alström syndrome: silent progression of diffuse interstitial fibrosis

 T1 SAX Mid Gradient (ms per Year)T1 SAX Mid ECV Gradient (pp per Year)
NMean ± SDp-ValueNMean ± SDp-Value
Age at First Scan*26−0.137*0.505*240.1690.430
Ethnicity  0.278  0.360
White British1826.3 ± 25.2 171.8 ± 2.5 
Other812.7 ± 35.9 70.7 ± 2.6 
Gender  0.112  0.864
Male1715.5 ± 29.4 151.4 ± 2.5 
Female934.5 ± 24.8 91.6 ± 2.8 
ACE/ARB  0.969  0.771
No621.7 ± 56.6 51.8 ± 2.9 
Yes2022.2 ± 16.0 191.4 ± 2.5 
Statins/Fibrates  0.103  0.121
No1430.7 ± 22.5 142.1 ± 2.8 
Yes1212.1 ± 33.1 100.5 ± 1.7 
Hypertension  0.930  0.117
No1121.5 ± 35.6 100.5 ± 2.4 
Yes1522.5 ± 24.2 142.1 ± 2.4 
Hyperlipidaemia  0.040  0.989
No1135.5 ± 21.8 111.5 ± 2.2 
Yes1512.3 ± 30.1 131.5 ± 2.8 
Infantile cardiomyopathy  0.710  0.904
No1620.4 ± 33.0 151.5 ± 2.9 
Yes1024.9 ± 22.0 91.4 ± 1.9 
Diabetes  0.764  0.132
No919.7 ± 39.3 90.5 ± 2.5 
Yes1723.4 ± 23.0 152.1 ± 2.4 
Insulin resistance (not diabetes)  0.752  0.870
No2021.1 ± 30.2 181.5 ± 2.6 
Yes625.5 ± 26.3 61.3 ± 2.4 
CKD  0.889  0.630
No1223.0 ± 33.3 121.2 ± 2.0 
Yes1421.4 ± 25.8 121.7 ± 3.0 
Presence of CAD**  0.622  0.121
No2023.5 ± 27.5 201.0 ± 2.0 
Yes332.7 ± 44.7 33.4 ± 4.7 
  1. Gradients were calculated on a per-patient basis, as described in the methods, with the resulting values reported as mean ± SD, and compared between groups using independent samples t-tests, unless stated otherwise. Only those patients with at least two valid scans for the stated marker were included in the analysis
  2. *Reported as a Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient and p-value. **Excludes N = 3 patients with unknown CAD status. Note that ECV was measured as a percentage, hence gradients are reported in percentage points (pp) per year. Bold p-values are significant at p < 0.05