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Table 5 Comparison between adults with achondroplasia with symptomatic spinal stenosis (SSS) and without (non-SSS)

From: High prevalence of symptomatic spinal stenosis in Norwegian adults with achondroplasia: a population-based study

Variables SSS Non-SSS Unadjusted Adjusted for age
  (n = 34) (n = 16) Mean difference Mean difference P value
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) (95% bootstrap CI) (95% bootstrap CI)  
Age, mean, years 48.4 (17.6) 23.9 (7.8) 24.5 (17.5 to 31.5) < 0.01
Gender males, % (n) 55.9 (15) 50.0 (8) 5.9 (−36.2 to 24.1) 3.5 (−34.9 to 42.6) 0.87
Body mass index, kg/m2 35.0 (6.8) 29.8 (5.0) 5.2 (1.9 to 8.5) 4.0 (−0.2 to 7.9) 0.05
Employment, % (n) a 26.5 (9) 93.8 (15) −67.3 (−84.8 to 45.8) −33.7 (−62.3 to −7.2) 0.03
Wheelchair users, % (n) b 52.9 (18) 25 (4) 27.9 (−0.6 to 54.7) 51.2 (19.8 to 76.9) < 0.01
Physical Functioning
6MWT, meters c 386 (129) 526 (59) − 140 (− 196 to − 85) −110 (−172 to −40) < 0.01
Grip force, maximum d
 Right hand, Newton 162.5 (71.5) 170.9 (61.8) −8.3 (−47.9 to 30.2) −26.5 (−64.8 to 12.1) 0.17
 Left hand, Newton 155.1 (69.2) 148.1 (43.3) 7.0 (−25.6 to 39.5) −9.6 (− 42.6 to 29.6) 0.59
Pinch grip, maximum d
 Right hand, Newton 35.2 (9.5) 33.8 (10.1) 1.4 (−4.6 to 7.4) −3.8 (−10.8 to 2.8) 0.27
 Left hand, Newton 34.3 (12.6) 35.4 (10.2) −1.2 (−7.9 to 5.6) −7.2 (− 15.2 to 1.5) 0.09
HAQ Total mean score e 1.1 (0.7) 0.3 (0.2) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.1) 0.3 (0.06 to 0.6) 0.04
HAQ Category sum scores e
 Dressing and grooming 1.0 (0.8) 0.1 (0.3) 0.9 (0.6 to 1.2) 0.4 (0.02 to 0.8) 0.04
 Arising 0.9 (1.0) 0.1 (0.3) 0.8 (0.4 to 1.2) 0.1 (−0.3 to 0.4) 0.76
 Eating 0.6 (0.9) 0.5 (0.6) 0.1 (−0.3 to 0.5) − 0.3 (− 0.9 to 0.2) 0.38
 Walking 1.6 (0.9) 0.3 (0.5) 1.2 (0.9 to 1.6) 0.9 (0.3 to 1.4) < 0.01
 Hygiene 1.4 (0.8) 0.3 (0.5) 1.1 (0.7 to 1.5) 0.6 (0.2 to 1.0) < 0.01
 Reach 1.2 (0.9) 0.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.7 to 1.4) 0.4 (−0.06 to 0.8) 0.07
 Grip 0.5 (0.9) 0.0 (0.0) 0.5 (0.3 to 0.8) 0.2 (−0.3 to 0.6) 0.49
 Activities 1.8 (0.9) 0.9 (0.3) 0.9 (0.6 to 1.2) 0.4 (−0.01 to 0.8) 0.08
Pain intensity, NRS, mean f 5.4 (3.1) 3.5 (3.1) 1.9 (0.06 to 3.8) 3.2 (0.6 to 5.6) 0.02
  1. a Working full-time or student
  2. b Including both permanent and sporadic wheelchair users, and manual or power wheelchairs
  3. c 6-min walk test: SSS group n = 28, non-SSS group: n = 15
  4. d Grip force and pinch grip: SSS group: n = 29, non-SSS group: n = 16
  5. e Health Assessment Questionnaire, score 0–3
  6. f Numeric Rating Scale 0–10 (best to worst)