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Table 5 Levels of evidence according to the French Health Authority guidelines

From: The French national protocol for Kennedy’s disease (SBMA): consensus diagnostic and management recommendations

Level of evidenceCriteria
Level 1Comparative and randomised studies with appropriate statistical power
Meta-analyses of randomised studies
Level 2Comparative and randomised studies with limited statistical power
Non-randomised studies with high methodological value
Cohort studies
Level 3Case-controls studies
Level 4Comparative studies with known bias (selection, inclusion, convenience sampling)
Retrospective studies