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Table 2 Severe complications occurring during pregnancy or post-partum in women with HHT and published as case report (n = 31)

From: Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia and pregnancy: a review of the literature

T: Transfusion
S: Surgery
E: Embolisation
D: Drain
Date of events (wg)Clinical presentationTerm of delivey (wg)Maternal outcomeFœtal outcome
HaemothoraxTexier et al. 2018T + S/HHT–26Chest pain40GoodLive infant
Md Noh et al. 2018E/HHT–20Dyspnea20Small bowel active hemorrhageFoetal death
Raiya et al. 2017D + E/HHT–23Dyspnea, chest pain40GoodLive infant
Jakobi et al. 2001S/HHT+26Severe hypoxemia40Hypoxemia PP embolisationSGA infant
Adegboyega et al. 1996D/HHT–29Dyspnea Chest pain40Discharged no sequelaeLive infant (CS)
Freixinet et al. 1995D + S/HHT?27Dyspnea?Severe mitral regurgitationLive infant
Bevelaqua et al. 1992D + E/HHT–26Dyspnea Chest pain40Diagnosed 6 wkLive infant
Laroche et al. 1992D + S / HHT +29Dyspnea Chest pain37Post embolotherapyLive infant
Gammon et al. 1990D + E / HHT -24Dyspnea Chest pain30Heart failure resolvedLive infant
Waring et al. 1990D + E/HHT +26Dyspnea32Heart failure resolvedLive infant
HemoptysisBanerjee et al. 2018 34HemoptysisGood
Tandon et al. 2017reE of PAVM/HHT+32Unconscious and hypoxia37GoodLive infant (VD)
Yaniv-Salem et al. 2017reE of PAVM/HHT+35Massive hemoptysis37GoodLive infant (VD)
Wispelaere et al. 1996−/HHT+10Hemoptysis, transient loss of consciousness and tachycardiaTherapeutic abortionWell, required resection of PAVM
Severe HypoxemiaWorda et al. 2007−/HHT+12Dyspnea, cyanosis32Clinically improvedLive infant (CS)
Jakobi et al. 2001−/HHT+25Hypoxemia IUGR25Foetal death
Swinburne et al. 1986−/HHT+35Dyspnea, cyanosis35Post partum PAVM surgery
Active limited live
Live infant (CS)
Cerebral Ischemic strokeSwietlik et al. 2008Craniotom/HHT+35Headache and dyspnea
Brain abscess + PAVM
35Post partum Hemothorax requiring
re Embolisation
Live infant (CS)
Intracranial hemorrhageGillard et al. 1996CAVM surgery/HHT–21Right hemiplegia, aphasia38.5Post partum epilepsy, Right hemiparesisLive infant (CS)
Neau et al. 1988Brain surgery/HHT–30Right hemiplegia with aphasia violent headache and vomiting30Fatal (multiple CAVM, 5 hematomas)Foetal death (VD)
Pulmonary edemaEuser et al. 2012HHT+33Pre-eclampsia, extensive edema in her legs and face34GoodLive infant (CS)
High output heart failure all related to liver AVMBerthelot et al. 2015Diuretics/HHT–25Dyspnea33At day 16 post partum complete regression of congestive signsLive infant (CS)
Lai et al. 2010?/HHT+36Rest Dyspnea36GoodLive infant (CS)
Goussous et al. 2009?/HHT-29Right sided heart failure and preterm labor On post partum day 2: dyspnea and lower extremity edema? (CS)
Livneh et al. 1988Diuretics/HHT+26Weakness, dyspnea35 (?)At 4 months Post partum GoodLive infant
Livneh et al. 1988Diuretics/HHT–26Dyspnea40At 4 months Post partum no more heart failureLive infant
McInroy et al. 1998Post partum Liver transplantation HHT+30Abdominal pain + fever30Biliary necrosis, liver transplant postpartumLive infant
Bauer et al. 1995Liver transplant HHT–Abdominal pain dyspnea, MelaenaLiver transplant
Gastrointestinal bleedingHillert et al. 2001Liver transplantation/HHT+27Diffuse abdominal pain
29GoodLive infant (CS)
Branch retinal artery occlusionAskim et al. 2017Subcutaneous Heparin +
PAVM embolization/HHT–
12Sudden painless scotoma in left eye40GoodLive infant (VD)
Massive intraperitoneal haemorrhageSivarani et al. 2010HHT+36High-output cardiac failure36Fatal (on post-partum: massive haemorrhage in the intra-peritoneal cavity with multiple AVMs in the gastrointestinal tract)Live infant (CS)
  1. Legends: HHT- means that the diagnosis was not done before the complication and HHT+ means that the diagnosis was known before the complication. CS Cesarean section, PAVM Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, SGA Small for gestational age, VD Vaginal delivery