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Table 1 Principles of Good Practice for the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Process for Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) Measures [20]

From: Incontinentia pigmenti burden scale: designing a family burden questionnaire

PreparationEvaluation of the source text from a linguistic and cultural point of view including definition of concepts
Forward translationsForward translation into the required target language by two independent translators
ReconciliationComparison of the two forward translations to provide the best adapted and to produce a draft versions of the text
Back translationTranslation of the draft forward translation back into the targeted language without reference to the original language
Back translation reviewComparison of the original text and the back translation to verify if changes are required to the draft forward version
Analysis and implementation of back translation review reportAnalysis of the back translation review report to verify if changes are required to draft forward version
Pilot testingClinical review and cognitive debriefing
Review of cognitive debriefing or clinical review resultsReview of results from the cognitive debriefing or clinical review to identify translation modifications necessary for improvement