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Table 3 Pearson r correlations between Phe measures taken at different points in time and adult cognitive performance (N participants = 51–56; N tasks = 16). Significant correlations are in bold. a = significant <.05; b significant <.01. To facilitate interpretation, positive correlations always indicate that high Phe was associated with worse performance. Thus, for IQ, digit span, Corsi span, and semantic fluency correlations were reversed

From: Adult cognitive outcomes in phenylketonuria: explaining causes of variability beyond average Phe levels

PHE Visual attention speedVisuo Motor coordinationEF /MonitoringSustainedLearning and memory
FSIQSimpleDetectionFeatureConjunctionPeg-DigitWCSTTMTDigitCorsiSemanticAttentionReyReyPaired Associate
 RTwith distractors RTSearch RTSearch RTboardSymbolTotal errorsB-AspanSpanFluencyRVP %a1-a5delayedVisual learning
0–10 yrs
 Average.20.22.30a.33a.34a.18.18.09.28a.12−.02.28.12.06.07.34a
 SD.43b.43b.56b.41b.44b.40b.15.19.47b.37a.06.25.31a.35a.36a.53b
11–16 yrs
 Average.32a.14.18.33a.27.28a.27.32a.22.11.09.34a.32a.17.14.60b
SD.40b.16.25.25.20.40b−.03.21.27.30a−.06.42b.32a.07.11.42b
17 yr to now
 Average.42b.05.29a.35a.32a.24.35a.31a.43b.10.05.21.38b.28.29a.44b
 SD.47b.06.26.23.15.33a.00.26.54b.12−0.1.27a.37b−.03.06.23
Lifetime
 Average.23.13.27.40b.40b.180.28.29a.28a.01.04.16.19.12.12.40b
 SD.56b.23.43b.29a.24.39b0.07.28a.47b.26−0.04.29a.40b.21.29a.48b
Current.43b.000.16.09.09.26.34a.22.55b.05−0.11.17.42b.34a.39b.33a
  1. Note. Correlations have been carried out using z scores. For the English PKU sample the number of participants and available Phe measures is slightly different across tests (range 31–37 participants), this means that the same value of r may have different probabilities