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Table 2 Results of neuropsychological assessment reported in the included studies

From: Cognitive functioning in patients with classical galactosemia: a systematic review

Author (year) Tests Memory Information Processing Speed Attention/Executive functioning Language Visuospatial functioning & construction
Antshel et al. (2004) [19] ROCF
BNT
WCST
BVMI
ROCF IR organization: not impaired
(z = − 0.57 (SD = 0.19); p = .307)
ROCF IR structural elements accuracy: not impaired (z = − 0.25 (SD = 0.11); p = .338)
ROCF IR incidental elements accuracy: impaired
(z = − 1.47 (SD = 0.53); p < .001)
ROCF DR organization: not impaired
(z = − 0.58 (SD = 0.17); p = .387)
ROCF DR structural elements accuracy: not impaired (z = − 0.63 (SD = 0.08); p = .316)
ROCF DR incidental elements accuracy: impaired
(z = − 1.43 (SD = 0.32); p < .001)
NI WCST completed categories: not impaired (z = − 1.32 (SD = 0.43); p < .001)
WCST perseverative errors (%): impaired
(z = − 1.98 (SD = 0.38); p < .001)
BNT total correct: not impaired
(z = − 0.89 (SD = 0.18); p < .001)
BNT total correct with phonemic cue:
not impaired (z = 0.43 (SD = 0.16);
p = .227)
ROCF Copy organization:
not impaired
(z = − 0.18 (SD = 0.10); p = .421)
ROCF Copy structural elements accuracy: not impaired
(z = − 0.26 (SD = 0.04); p = .309)
ROCF Copy incidental elements accuracy: not impaired
(z = − 1.35 (SD = 0.45); p < .001)
BVMI: not impaired
(z = − 0.77 (SD = 0.27); p = .089)
Doyle et al. (2010) [21] Hayling Test
BSAT
WMS III
VOSP
- Incomplete letters
- Position discrimination
WMS III Auditory IR Index: not impaired
(z = − 0.53 (SD = 1.07), 32.1% < P9)
WMS III Auditory DR Index: not impaired
(z = − 0.37 (SD = 1.13), 21.4% < P9)
WMS III Auditory Recognition Index: not impaired
(z = − 0.25 (SD = 0.91), 7.1% < P9)
WMS III Visual IR Index: not impaired
(z = − 1.27 (SD = 0.73), 39.4% < P9)
WMS III Visual DR Index: not impaired
(z = − 1.18 (SD = 0.88), 39.3% < P9)
Hayling Test (N = 24): impaired
(z = − 1.83 (SD = 0.4), 29.1% < P9)
WMS III Digit Span (N = 27):
not impaired
(z = − 1.03 (SD = 0.73), 29.6% < P9)
WMS III Spatial Span (N = 25):
not impaired
(z = − 0.93 (SD = 1.07), 28.0% < P9)
WMS III Letter-number sequencing (N = 27): not impaired
(z = − 1.07 (SD = 0.87), 29.7% < P9)
BSAT (N = 24): impaired
(z = − 1.47 (SD = 0.37), 16.7% < P9)
Hayling Test (N = 24): impaired
(z = − 1.83 (SD = 0.4), 29.1% < P9)
NI VOSP Incomplete letters
(N = 23): not impaired
(z = 0 (SD = 1.0), 4.3% < P9)
VOSP Position discrimination
(N = 23): impaired
(z = − 2.13 (SD = 3.38),
43.4% < P9)
Hoffmann
et al. (2011) [22]
HWWRT NI NI NI Impaired: 84.4% of the patients had errors (> cut-off of 1) NI
Iakovou
et al. (2018) [26]
PPVT-III NI NI NI PPVT-III: not impaired (z = 1.20) NI
Kaufman et al. (1995) [23] WJ-R COG
PPVT-R
BVMI
WJ-R Memory for names (N = 40):
Children: not impaired (z = − 0.79 (SD = 1.09)), Adults: not impaired (z = − 1.33 (SD = 0.91))
WJ-R Visual Matching (N = 40):
Children: impaired
(z = − 1.86 (SD = 1.84)), Adults: not impaired
(z = − 1.33 (SD = 1.27))
WJ-R Analysis-synthesis (N = 40):
Children: not impaired
(z = − 1.18 (SD = 0.97)),
Adults: not impaired
(z = − 0.99 (SD = 1.01))
WJ-R Memory for sentences
(N = 40):
Children: not impaired
(z = − 1.19 (SD = 1.29)),
Adults: not impaired
(z = − 1.21 (SD = 0.93))
WJ-R Incomplete words (N = 40):
Children: not impaired
(z = − 1.03 (SD = 0.96)),
Adults: not impaired
(z = − 0.69 (SD = 1.03))
WJ-R Picture vocabulary (N = 40):
Children: not impaired
(z = − 1.24 (SD = 1.06)),
Adults: impaired (z = − 1.81 (SD = 1.24))
PPVT-R (N = 36): Children: not impaired
(z = − 0.93 (SD = 0.89)),
Adults: impaired (z = − 1.57 (SD = 1.09))
WJ-R Visual closure (N = 40):
Children: not impaired
(z = − 0.27 (SD = 1.0)),
Adults: not impaired
(z = − 0.84 (SD = 0.85))
BVMI (N = 36):
Children: not impaired
(z = − 1.25 (SD = 0.87))
Lewis
et al. (2012) [25]
PPVT-4
EVT-2
NI NI NI PPVT-4: Child 2,3,4 impaired
(z = − 1.67; z = − 2.2; z = − 2.0),
Child 1 not impaired (z = 0.73)
EVT-2: Child 3,4 impaired
(z = − 1.93; z = − 2.0),
Child 1,2 not impaired (z = 0.47; z = − 1.33)
NI
Lewis
et al. (2013) [20]
PLS-4
PPVT-4
EVT-2
NI NI NI PLS-4 Auditory comprehension:
not impaired (z = − 1.13; p ≥ .05)
PLS-4 Expressive communication: impaired (z = − 1.67; p ≥ .05)
PPVT-4: not impaired (z = − 0.47; p ≥ .05)
EVT-2: not impaired (z = − 1.07; p ≥ .05)
NI
Lewis
et al. (2013) [27]
PLS-4 NI NI NI PLS-4 Receptive communication: impaired (z = − 2.27)
PLS-4 Expressive communication: impaired (z = − 1.67)
NI
Ng et al. (2003) [28] PPVT-R NI NI NR PPVT-R: not impaired (z = 1.13) NR
Van Erven
et al. (2017) [24]
ROCF ROCF IR: impaired (z = − 2.0) NI NI NI NI
Waisbren et al. (2012) [15] PPVT-4 NI NI NI PPVT-4: not impaired
(z = − 0.87 (SD = 0.98))
NI
  1. Notes. IR Immediate Recall, DR Delayed Recall, z z-score, SD standard deviation, p p-value, NI Not investigated, NR Not reported, P2 Second percentile, ROCF Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, BNT Boston Naming Test, WCST Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, BVMI Beery Developmental test of Visual-Motor Integration, WRAML Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, BSAT Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test, WMS III Wechsler Memory Scale III, VOSP Visual Object and Space Perception Battery, HWWRT Hierarchische Wortlisten word-repetition test, PPVT-III Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3, WJ-R COG Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery - Revised: Tests of cognitive ability, PPVT-R Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test – Revised, PPVT-4 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4, EVT-2 Expressive Vocabulary Test-2, PLS-4 Preschool Language Scale-4