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Table 1 Sample characteristics of the participating families

From: Quality of life of children with achondroplasia and their parents - a German cross-sectional study

Child age (years)
(n = 73)
Mean/Median 9.75/9.59
SD/SE 3.02/.35
Child gender
(n = 73)
Male 37 (50.7%)
Female 36 (49.3%)
SDS of height
(n = 72)
Mean / Median −5.25 / -5.24
SD / SE 1.26 / .15
Body mass index (z-scores) (n = 71) Mean / Median 1.36 / 1.41
SD / SE .83 / .10
Proportionality ratio
(n = 68)
Mean / Median 1.82 / 1.86
SD / SE .30 / .04
Additional complications a
(n = 66–73)
Reduced foramen magnum size 23 (31.5%)
Hydrocephalus 3 (4.1%)
Spinal canal narrow 8 (11.1%)
Tibial bowing or leg bowing 34 (51.5%)
Chronic middle ear infections 45 (61.6%)
Tonsillectomy 45 (61.6%)
Sleep apnea. 30 (41.7%)
Nightly snoring 64 (88.9%)
Mouthbreathing 58 (79.5%)
Daily pain 21 (28.8%)
Daily fatigue 22 (30.1%)
Height of the children’s mothers in cm (n = 71) Mean / Median 178,13 / 168,00
SD / SE 99,23 / 11,78
Height of the children’s fathers in cm (n = 68) Mean / Median 188,87 / 178,00
SD / SE 100,30 / 12,16
Parental gender
(n = 73)
Male 17 (23.3%)
Female 56 (76.7%)
  1. a multiple complications possible.
  2. Abbreviations: standard deviation (SD), standard error (SE)