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Table 1 Principles of Good Practice for the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Process for Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) Measures

From: Burden of adult neurofibromatosis 1: development and validation of a burden assessment tool

Stage Détails
Preparation Evaluation of the source text from a linguistic and cultural point of view including definition of concepts
Forward translations Forward translation into the required target language by two independent translators
Reconciliation Comparison of the two forward translations to provide the best adaption and produce a draft version of the text
Back translation Translation of the draft forward translation back into the targeted language without reference to the original language
Back-translation review Comparison of the original text and the back translation to verify that the meaning of the draft translation is equivalent to source
Analysis and implementation of back-translation review report Analysis of the back-translation review report to verify if there are changes required to the draft forward
Pilot testing Clinical review and cognitive debriefing
Review of cognitive debriefing or clinical review results Review of the results from the cognitive debriefing or clinical review to identify translation modifications necessary for improvement