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Table 3 Baseline characteristics by randomized treatment (end of run-in therapy)

From: Effect and safety of treatment with ACE-inhibitor Enalapril and β-blocker metoprolol on the onset of left ventricular dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

  Enalapril and Metoprolol 1) Placebo 1)
Age [years] 12 ± 1.2 n = 21 11 ± 1.1 n = 17
Body Mass Index [kg/m2] 23 ± 6 n = 20 21 ± 5 n = 17
Ability to rise from supine position 24% 5/21 24% 4/17
Preserved ability to walk 33% 7/21 41% 5/17
Maximum walking distance [m] 200 (3–6000)2) n = 7 300 (30–800)2) n = 5
Systolic blood pressure [mmHg] 103 ± 16 n = 21 101 ± 11 n = 17
Patients with presence of cardiac symptoms 0% 0/21 0% 0/17
Steroid use or history of steroid use 76% 16/21 59% 10/17
NYHA class
 Not applicable 52% 11/21 59% 10/17
 NYHA class I 48% 10/21 35% 6/17
 NYHA class II 0% 0/21 6% 1/17
Quality of life (KINDL total score at screening) 70.8 ± 10.1 n = 21 75.6 ± 10.0 n = 17
Echocardiography n = 21   n = 17
 Left ventricle fractional shortening [%] 35 ± 3   36 ± 4  
Electrocardiogram (ECG) n = 21   n = 17
 Ventricular heart rate [beats/min] 84 ± 14   94 ± 16  
Holter-Electrocardiogram (Holter-ECG) n = 20   n = 15
Ventricular heart rate [beats/min]
 minimum 67 ± 12   72 ± 10  
 maximum 126 ± 17   133 ± 11  
 mean 90 ± 12   97 ± 9  
Heart rate variability (Holter ECG) n = 11   n = 10
 Mean NN [ms] 678 ± 80   571 ± 174  
 SDNN [ms] 98 ± 29   96 ± 30  
 SDANN [ms] 71 ± 24   75 ± 25  
 ASDNN [ms] 60 ± 20   54 ± 21  
 rMSSD [ms] 46 ± 26   45 ± 21  
 pNN50 [%] 17 ± 15   13 ± 11  
  1. 1) Data are mean ± SD or percentage, n = number of measurements
  2. 2) Data are mean, (minimum-maximum), n = number of measurements
  3. Demographic data were collected at screening, baseline data from echocardiography, ECG and Holter-ECG refer to measurements after run-in/before randomization