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Table 1 demographic characteristics

From: Microscopic versus endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery in the Leiden cohort treated for Cushing’s disease: surgical outcome, mortality, and complications

  Microscopic trans-sphenoidal adenomectomy Endoscopic transsphenoidal adenomectomy Tested difference (95% CI; p-value) Tested difference (95% CI; p-value) (Microadenoma only) Tested difference (95% CI; p-value) (Macroadenoma only)
N % N %    
Total 87 100.0 50 100.0   Sample size:103 Sample size:34
Age at diagnosis, years* 38.9 15.4 44.4 15.1 5.5 (0.1 to 10.9; p = 0.045) 3.4 (−2.6 to 9.3; p = 0.263) 9.0 (−3.5 to 21.4; p = 0.152)
Sex (female) 69 79.3 34 68.0 11.3 (−4.2 to 26.8; p = 0.140) 7.7 (− 10.4 to 25.8; p = 0.391) 20.8 (−8.5 to 50.1; p = 0.170)
Calendar year of transsphenoidal surgery° 1992 1978–2005 2011 2003–2016 19.2 (17.1 to 21.2; p = 0.000) 20.4 (18.1 to 22.6; p = 0.000) 14.7 (10.1 to 19.3; p = 0.000)
Duration of follow-up (years) $ 16.9 11.7–26.7 4.7 2.0–7.4 13.4 (11.0 to 15.8; p = 0.000) 14.0 (11.2 to 17.7; p = 0.000) 11.3 (6.9 to 15.6; p = 0.000)
Comorbidities at diagnosis
Hypertension 64 73.6 38 76.0 2.4 (− 12.6 to 17.4; p = 0.756) 3.3 (−15.2 to 21.8; p = 0.723) 15.3 (− 11.0 to 41.6; p = 0.271)
Diabetes mellitus 14 16.1 15 30.0 13.9 (−1.0 to 28.8; p = 0.055) 13.5 (−4.1 to 31.1; p = 0.110) 14.5 (−14.0 to 43.0; p = 0.320)
Dyslipidemia 8 9.1 8 16.0 6.9 (− 4.9 to 18.7; p = 0.225) 3.0 (−8.0 to 14.0; p = 0.569) 9.0 (−20.7 to 38.7; p = 0.553)
Cushing’s syndrome Severity Index score* 6.9 2.3 6.8 2.8 −0.10 (−0.98 to 0.79; p = 0.832) 0.09 (−1.00 to 1.17; p = 0.877) − 0.72 (−2.31 to 0.86; p = 0.357)
0–4 13 15.1 10 20.0    
5–8 53 61.6 27 54.0    
9–16 20 23.2 13 26.0    
Tumor size      11.3 (−4.2 to 26.8; p = 0.140)
Microadenoma 69 79.3 34 68.0    
Macroadenoma Cavernous sinus invasion 185 20.7 27.8 16 8 32.0 50.0    
Referral by other neurosurgeon or university medical center 4 4.6 6 12.0 7.4 (−2.6 to 17.4; p = 0.109) 3.0 (−5.9 to 11.9; p = 0.459) 13.9 (−11.8 to 39.6; p = 0.389)
Medical treatment prior to surgery 57 65.5 47 94.0 28.5 (16.5 to 40.5; p = 0.000) 34.8 (23.6 to 46.0; p = 0.000) 14.6 (−14.4 to 43.6; p = 0.335)
-Metyrapone 8 9.2 16 32.0    
-Ketoconazole 51 58.6 32 64.0    
-Pasireotide 0 0.0 2 4.0    
  1. *mean + standard deviation, °mean + range, $median + interquartile range; CI = confidence interval