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Table 3 Thyroid parameters of the whole group and the two subgroups according to the presence of an ultrasound goiter

From: Systematic thyroid screening in myotonic dystrophy: link between thyroid volume and insulin resistance

Thyroid parameters Whole group UsGoiter UsNonGoiter p-value
Number of patients (N; %) N = 115 44 (38.3) 71 (61.7)  
Family history of thyroid disorders (n/N; %) 14/115 (12.2) 7/44 (15.9) 7/71 (9.8) .76
 Cancer 1/115 (0.9) 1/7 (14.3) 0 NA
Clinical evaluation
 Goiter (n/N; %) 19/115 (16.5) 19/44 (43.2) 0 <.001
 Nodule (n/N; %) 22/115 (19.1) 12/44 (27.3) 10/71 (14.1) <.001
Ultrasound evaluation
 Thyroid volume (mean ± SD, mL) 22.9 ± 15.0 33.4 ± 25.2 12.2 ± 4.5 <.001
  Female ♀ (mean ± SD, mL) 19.5 ± 19.3 30.8 ± 26.5 11.9 ± 3.5 <.001
  Male ♂ (mean ± SD, mL) 22.2 ± 19.1 37.6 ± 23.1 12.7 ± 5.8 <.001
   < 45 years old (mean +/- SD) 18.3 ± 12.3 28.6 ± 14.5 12.4 ± 4.8 .015
   > 45 years old (mean +/- SD) 23.3 ± 25.0 38.1 ± 32.3 11.9 ± 4.2 .003
 UsNodule > 5 mm (TIRADS) (n/N; %) 70/115 (60.9) 36/44 (81.8) 34/71 (47.9) .0006
  2 18/70 (25.7) 11/36 (30.6) 7/34 (20.6)  
  3 23/70 (32.8) 9/36 (25) 14/34 (41.2)  
  4 (4A and 4B) 16/70 (22.9) 7/36 (19.4) 9/34 (26.5)  
  5 4/70 (5.7) 2/36 (5.6) 2/34 (5.9)  
  Missing data 9/70 (12.9) 7/36 (19.4) 2/34 (5.9)  
 FNAC – Bethesda (22/116 FNAC) 22/70 (31.4) 13/36 (36.1) 9/34 (26.5) .03
  1} Non-diagnostic 5/22 (22.8) 4/13 (30.8) 1/9 (11.1)  
  2} Benign: 0–3% of malignancy 11/22 (50.0) 8/13 (61.5) 3/9 (23.1)  
  3 and 4} 5–30% of malignancy 3/22 (13.6) 0 3/9 (23.1)  
  5 and 6} 60–99% of malignancy 3/22 (13.6) 1/13 (7.7) 2/9 (15.4)  
Biological evaluation
 TSH (mean ± SD; μIU/mL) 1.7 ± 1.2 1.3 ± 0.9 2.0 ± 1.2 <.001
   < 0.4 (n/N; %) 9/115 (7.8) 5/44 (11.4) 4/71 (5.6)  
  0.4–3.6 (n/N; %) 92/115 (80.0) 34/44 (77.3) 58/71 (81.7)  
   > 3.6 (n/N; %) 15/115 (13.0) 6/44 (13.6) 9/71 (12.7) .74
 FT4 (mean ± SD; ng/dL) 0.9 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.2 .01
 FT3 (mean ± SD; pg/mL) 3.4 ± 0.6 3.4 ± 0.6 3.4 ± 0.5 .77
Anti-TPO Antibodies (n/N; %; IU/L)     .51
  Negative 52/115 (45.2) 23/44 (52.3) 29/71 (40.8)  
  Positive 52/115 (45.2) 19/44 (43.2) 33/71 (46.5)  
  Missing data 12/115 (10.4) 3/44 (6.8) 9/71 (21.9)  
Thyroid cancer (n/N; %) 9/115 (7.8) 8/44 (18.2) 1/71 (1.4) .002
 Recurrence (clinical and US scan) 0 0 0  
 Rise of thyroglobulin 1/9 (11.1) 1/8 (12.5) 0  
 Death 0 0 0  
Treatment (n/N; %)     NA
 Total thyroidectomy – indications (n/N; %) 16/115 (13.9) 11/44 (25) 5/71 (7.1)  
  For goiter (compression, aesthetic issues) 10/16 (62.5) 10/11 (91) 0/5  
  For suspicious nodule 6/16 (37.5) 1/11 (9) 5/5 (100)  
 Radioiodine therapy for carcinoma 3/9 (33.3) 2/44 (4.5) 1/71 (1.4)  
 LT4 Therapy 23/115 (20) 12/44 (27.3) 11/71 (15.5)  
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile, Us Ultrasound, FNAC Fine needle aspiration cytology, TPO Thyroperoxydase, LT4 Levothyroxine
  2. Nodule classification – Always considering the nodule with the higher TIRADS if there were multiple nodules, FNAC Fine needle aspiration cytology, TPO Thyroperoxydase auto-antibodies