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Table 2 Hospitalized DS patients (n = 64): comparison between DS patients with or without recurrent infections

From: Infection risk among adults with down syndrome: a two group series of 101 patients in a tertiary center

  Infectionsa (n = 31) No Infections (n = 33) OR /HR Univariate p* Multivariate p**
Age (years) 51 (19–73) 45 (18–65) / 0.01 0.12
Sex ratio (F/M) 0.35 (8/23) 0.8 (15/18) 0.41 (0.14–1.2) 0.12 0.16
Institutional living (n, %) 21 (68) 16 (48) 2.2 (0.8–6.1) 0.12 0.89
Hypothyroidism (n, %) 14 (45) 13 (40) 1.2 (0.46–3.4) 0.8 /
Cardiac congenital disease (n, %) 5 (16) 5 (15) 1.1 (0.27–4.1) 1 0.06
Gastrointestinal malformation (n, %) 2 (6.4) 2 (6) 1.1 (0.14–8.0) 1 /
Neurological diseaseb(n, %) 22 (71) 9 (27) 6.5 (2.2–19) 0.001 0.0006
Epilepsy (n, %) 16 (52) 7 (21) 3.9 (1.3–12) 0.02 /
Dementia (n, %) 13 (42) 3 (9) 7.2 (1.8–29) 0.003 /
Hematological malignancy (n, %) 0 1 (3) 0.34 (0.1–9) 1 /
Lymphocytes rate (/μL) 1340 (650–2580) 1575 (558–3710) / 0.09 0.13
Lymphocytes < 1000/mm3 (n, %) 9 (29) 5 (15) 2.3 (0.67–7.8) 0.23 /
Immunoglobulin rate (g/L) 12 (7–23) 16 (9–18) / 0.22 /
Mortality (n, %) 10 (32) 2 (6) 7.4 (1.4–37) 0.01 /
  1. aTotal number of infectious events: 106 (/138 stays); intensive care unit admission 11/106; Need of pressor amines 7/106, Acute lung injury syndrome 3/18; Pneumonia 96/106 (91%). The other reasons were seizures (n = 8), heart failure (n = 5), occlusive syndrome (n = 5), arterial cardiovascular event (n = 5), syncope (n = 4), acute renal disease (n = 2), pancreatitis, venous thrombosis, deep weight loss (n = 1 each)
  2. b Neurological disease was defined as epilepsy or dementia
  3. *Difference between infections and no infections groups using Fischer’s test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney test for quantitative variables
  4. **Using multiple logistic regression. OR: Odd Ratio – HR: Hazard Ratio
  5. Statistically significant results are marked in boldface