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Table 1 Ambulatory DS patients

From: Infection risk among adults with down syndrome: a two group series of 101 patients in a tertiary center

Demographics and clinical characteristics of ambulatory DS patients n = 37
Age at inclusion (years) 27 (18–52)
Sex ratio (F/M) 1.2 (20/17)
Institutional living (n, %) 0
Recurrent infections within childhood  
Before 5 years old 18 (49%)
From 6 to 18 years old 17 (46%)
Recurrent respiratory tract infections at adulthooda 1 (2.7%)
Hypothyroidism 20 (54%)
Epilepsy 2 (5.1%)
Dementia 0
Cardiac congenital disease 13 (35%)
Urogenital malformation 0
Gastrointestinal malformation 2 (5.1%)
Type 1 diabetes 0
Celiac disease 1 (2.7%)
Hematological malignancy 0
Biological features of ambulatory DS patients Normal values  
Neutrophils (cells/μL) 1800-7900 2225 (1110-4970)
Lymphocytes (cells/μL) 1943-2709 1480 (801–3132)
 T cells (cells/μL) 700–1900 1208 (514–2516)
  CD4+ T cells (cells/μL) 400–1300 612 (273–1307)
  CD8+ T cells (cells/μL) 200–700 474 (117–1365)
  Naïve CD45RA+ (% of T-cells) 34–60% 31% (9–65)
  Memory CD45RO+ (% of T-cells) 33–65% 65% (32–86)
Regulatory T cells CD3 + CD25 + FoxP3+ (% of CD4+) 2.75–5.0% 2.3% (0.3–5.3)
 NK cells CD3-CD56+ (cells/μL) 100–400 231 (53–633)
 CD19+ B cells (cells/μL) 169–271 71 (42–264)
  Naive CD27- IgD+ (cells/μL) 112–169 50 (4–246)
  Transitional CD24 + CD38+ (cells/μL) 2–6 2 (1–8)
  Switched memory CD27 + IgD- (cells/μL) 18–40 10 (2–22)
  Marginal zone CD27 + IgD+ (cells/μL) 22–54 3 (1–15)
  Plasmablast CD27-CD38+ (cells/μL) 1–3 3 (1–13)
  CD21lowCD38low (cells/μL) 4–11 2 (1–11)
 IgG (g/L) 7.2–14.7 14.2 (10.5–21.2)
  IgG1 (g/L) 3.41–10.3 10.1 (5.3–14)
  IgG2 (g/L) 2.07–6.59 3.5 (1.4–6.4)
  IgG3 (g/L)   IgG4 (g/L)   IgM (g/L) 0.21–1.45 0.013–1.03 0.48–3.10 1.4 (0.4–3.8) 0.1 (0.1–0.8) 0.7 (0.3–2.9)
  IgA (g/L) 1.1–3.6 3.1 (1.6–7.3)
  Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs) (n, %) ≤ 1/160 6 (16%)
  Anti-ds DNA antibodies (anti-ds DNA Abs) (n, %) <  50 U/ml 0
  Anti-thyroperoxidase antibodiesb (anti-TPO Abs) (n, %) <34kU/l 2 (5.4%)
Serological status (protective titerc) n = 37
Tetanus 36 (97%)
Polio 33 (89%)
Diphteria 19 (51%)
Haemophilus influenzae type b 30 (81%)
Streptococcus pneumoniae 34 (92%)
  1. a> 2 pneumoniae or bronchitis with need of antibiotherapy (after 18 years old) bAnti-TPO antibodies were searched for 26 patients c37patients were inoculated against diphteria tetanus and poliomyelitis (DTP vaccine), 35 (97%) against BCG (Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin), 27 (73%) against Bordetella pertussis, 8 (22%) against Haemophilus influenza type b and 2 (5%) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Protective titers were defined using manufacturers’ values