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Table 2 TAND Features in Children vs Adults

From: TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders (TAND): findings from the TOSCA natural history study

TAND Features Children (≤ 18 Years) With Manifestation, (n = 1410)
n (%)
Adults (>  18 Years) With Manifestation, (n = 806)
n (%)
p value
Behavioural levela  
 Overactivity 290 (54.8) 47 (21.4) < 0.0001
 Sleep difficulties 225 (43.4) 106 (45.1) 0.6531
 Impulsivity 244 (46.7) 73 (33.2) 0.0006
 Anxiety 130 (25.8) 110 (50.9) < 0.0001
 Mood swings 128 (25.2) 86 (40.8) < 0.0001
 Severe aggression 121 (22.9) 62 (27.4) 0.1850
 Depressed mood 41 (8.2) 98 (43.9) < 0.0001
 Self-injury 73 (13.9) 44 (19.2) 0.0625
 Obsessions 59 (11.8) 41 (19.2) 0.0085
 Psychosis 15 (3.0) 25 (11.3) < 0.0001
 Hallucinations 3 (0.6) 23 (10.3) < 0.0001
Psychiatric levela  
 ASD 246 (23.1) 68 (16.1) 0.0029
 ADHD 227 (22.4) 41 (10.5) < 0.0001
 Anxiety disorder 68 (7) 65 (16.8) < 0.0001
 Depressive disorder 21 (2.1) 63 (16.3) < 0.0001
Intellectual levelb  
 Normal IQ 283 (43.5) 110 (47.0)  
 Mild ID 202 (31) 47 (20.1)  
 Moderate ID 101 (15.5) 33 (14.1) 0.0005e
 Severe ID 51 (7.8) 31 (13.2)  
 Profound ID 14 (2.2) 13 (5.6)  
Academic level  
 Individuals ever had difficulties in academic performancea 506 (60.5) 229 (54.8) 0.0517
 Individuals assessed for academic difficultiesc 273 (54.0)c 86 (37.6)c 0.0785
Neuropsychological level  
 Individuals ever had any neuropsychological skill assesseda 414 (42.5) 150 (39.4) 0.2926
 Individuals with performance <5th percentiled 235 (56.8)d 79 (52.7)d 0.5333
  1. ASD autism spectrum disorder, ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ID intellectual disability, IQ intelligence quotient, TAND TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders
  2. aPercentages calculated considering only available data and excluding missing data unless otherwise specified
  3. bPercentages calculated based on the number of individuals with IQ assessment available in each age group: ≤ 18 years, n = 585; > 18, n = 234)
  4. cPercentages calculated based on the number of individuals with reported academic difficulties as denominator
  5. dPercentages calculated based on the number of individuals who had neuropsychological skill assessed as denominator
  6. eChi-square test showing association between children and adults across all levels of IQ