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Table 4 Assessment of Biochemical Status for nutrients/metabolites

From: Status of nutrients important in brain function in phenylketonuria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Routinely Annuala, b, biannualb Haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, and ferritina, b; micronutrients (vitamins and minerals including: calcium, zinc, and selenium (SEPP1)) or hormones (parathyroid hormone) if clinically indicateda
Vitamin D 25-OHb
Our recommendation: DHAc, EPAc, Cholesterol
Conditionalc,b Annual or as indicatedb Vitamin B12 (plasma methylmalonic acid, total homocysteine), erythrocyte folate, zinc, copper, essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid).
Every 5 years beginning with baseline at age 5b Bone density (DXA scan)b
Bone mineral density (BMD)a during late adolescence; if abnormal, the measurement should be repeated after 1 year
  1. a [2], b [102] excluding maternal PKU
  2. 3Monitoring is indicated by poor adherence to prescribed therapy (diet, medical food, or pharmacotherapy), clinical symptoms of nutritional inadequacy are present (e.g. poor growth), or serious intercurrent illness