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Table 7 Associations between ARM and maternal use of anti-infectives

From: Maternal drug use and the risk of anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

  Maternal use of anti-infectives  
Ref. First author, year Exposure ORcrude [95% CI] ORadj [95% CI] Adjustment/matching factors
[63] Crider, 2009 Any antibacterial medication use 1.0 [0.7, 1.3] Maternal age, race, education, prepregnancy BMI, time from the estimated date of delivery to the interview, use of folic acid or multivitamins, and any periconceptional smoking or alcohol use
Penicillins 0.8 [0.5, 1.2]
Erythromycins 1.0 [0.4, 2.1]
Nitrofurantoins 1.1 [0.4, 3.0]
Sulfonamides 1.0 [0.4, 2.9]
Cephalosporins 1.6 [0.7, 3.5]
[62] Carter, 2008 Antifungal drugs 1.4 [0.66, 3.06] Pregnancy BMI, maternal education
[70] Czeizel, 2001 Cephalexin 0.7 [0.1, 3.4]
Cefuroxime 1.0 [0.0, 51.9]   
[72] Stoll, 1997 Antibiotics 0.6 [0.23, 1.47]