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Table 6 Associations between ARM and maternal use of painkiller

From: Maternal drug use and the risk of anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

  Maternal use of painkiller  
Ref. First author, year Exposure ORcrude [95% CI] ORadj [95% CI] Adjustment/matching factors
[58] Hernandez, 2012 Aspirin 1.3 [0.79, 2.03]
Ibuprofen
Naproxen
1.1 [0.89, 1.42]  
1.3 [0.84, 2.01]  
[60] van Gelder, 2011 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 1.4 [0.2, 10.7]
[71] Czeizel, 2000 Acetylsalicylic acid 2.3 [0.9, 5.6]b Adjusted for maternal age, birth order, acute and chronic maternal disorders and other drug use
  1.2 [0.7, 2.8]c
  1.3 [0.5, 3.9]d
[79] Heinonen, 1977 Aspirina
  1. aThe prevalence per 10,000 live births was 8.75
  2. bA population control group, including maternal self-reported and medically documented drug use
  3. cMedically documented drug use
  4. dPatient control group