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Table 7 Percentages of offspring with congenital heart disease with Maternal Off-Diet Phe Levels (μmol/L)

From: The complete European guidelines on phenylketonuria: diagnosis and treatment

  ≥1200 μmol/l 900–1200 μmol/l 600–900 μmol/l 180–600 μmol/l Control group/normal population
Lenke and Levy 1980 [318] 12% of n = 225 15% of n = 46 6% of n = 33 0% of n = 44 0.8% in normal population
MPKUCS Koch 2003 [319] 11% of n = 257 5% 3% 2% of n = 66 1% CHD of n = 100 control pregnancies
n = 91 with 600–1200 μmol/l