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Fig. 3 | Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases

Fig. 3

From: Re-evaluation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome from a developmental and morphological perspective

Fig. 3

Appearances of mitral and aortic valves. Aortic (a-e) and mitral (f-j) valves in HLHS. A large well-formed aortic valve with thin leaflets in miniature ventricle. Arrows indicates three leaflets of aortic valve. b Small bicuspid aortic valve viewed from opened aorta (Ao) in MS/AA. Fused but apparently bi-foliate (arrow) aortic valve. c Aortic valve in AS/MS with uni-commisural valve and nodular dysplastic appearance (arrow). d Small nodule of valve tissue (arrow) in MS/AA ventricle seen from ventricular aspect with prominent EFE (*). e same valve from opened aorta. f nodule of white tissue indicating mitral atresia in slit like ventricle. g Mitral valve in heart with miniaturised ventricle. The mitral valve leaflet is thin (*) with well separated fine chordae (arrowhead) and a prominent papillary muscle (arrow); there is no EFE. h mitral valve with thickened leaflets (*), Short thick, but separate chordae (arrowhead) and small papillary muscles (arrow); marked EFE on LV surface. i Small stenotic mitral valve from MS/AA heart. leaflet (*), chordae (arrowhead) and papillary muscles (arrow) are coated with EFE. j Dysplastic mitral valve with nodular leaflets (*), sort chordae (arrowhead) and EFE coating small papillary muscle (arrow). k Correlation between mitral valve and aortic valve appearances

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