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Table 1 Studies since 1990 reporting on distribution of uveitis types

From: Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome: a systematic review of its epidemiology, demographics and risk factors

Author Data range Country Design TINU cases/ population(n) TINU cases (%)
‘All-age’ Studies with >500 patients
Rodriguez [47] 1982–1992 USA Retrospective 0/1237 0
Rothova [48] 1984–1989 The Netherlands Retrospective 0/865 0
Mackensen [7]* 1985–2005 USA Retrospective 33/1985 1.66
Mercanti [49] 1986–1993 Italy Retrospective 0/655 0
Oruc [50] 1990–1995 USA Retrospective 0/853 0
Tran [51] 1990–1993 Switzerland Prospective 0/558 0
Jones [9] 1991–2013 UK Prospective 7/3000 0.23
Kotake [52] 1994 Japan Retrospective 4/551 0.73
Barisani-Asenbauer [53] 1995–2009 Austria Retrospective 0/2619 0
Rathinam [54] 1996–2001 India Retrospective 0/8759 0
Singh [55] 1996–2001 India Retrospective 0/1233 0
Yang [56] 1996–2003 China Retrospective 0/1752 0
Soheilian [57] 1997–2000 Iran Retrospective 0/544 0
Jakob [12] 2001–2006 Germany Retrospective 10/1916 0.52
Al Dhibi [58] 2001–2010 Saudi Arabia Retrospective 0/888 0
Kazokoglu [59] 2004 Turkey Prospective 0/761 0
Ohguro [8] 2009–2010 Japan Prospective 15/3830 0.39
Gonzalez Fernandez [60] 2012–2013 Brazil Prospective 0/1053 0
Total     69/33059 0.21
Paediatric Studies with >250 patients
Smith [61] 1980–2005 USA Retrospective 12/527 2.28
Kump [4] 1985–2003 USA Retrospective 3/269 1.12
BenEzra [62] 1989–1999 Israel Retrospective 4/275 1.45
Paroli [63] 1995–2004 Italy Retrospective 4/257 1.55
Total     23/1328 1.73
  1. For inclusion a minimum number of 500 was required for ‘all age’ cohorts and a minimum number of 250 patients for paediatric cohorts. As discussed in the text, it should be recognised that studies which report 0 cases of TINU may do so due to (1) a true rarity in that population, (2) non-reporting of diagnosed cases (eg studies marked with a ‘+’ include the listing of ‘other diagnoses’ which could potentially include TINU cases), or (3) underdiagnosis
  2. *Includes ‘possible’ as well as ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ cases