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Table 1 Anaphylaxis mortality publications, bold font highlights studies that utilized ICD registries as the basis for analysis

From: Fatal anaphylaxis registries data support changes in the who anaphylaxis mortality coding rules

Reference Study location Study design Number of subjects Causes of anaphylaxis deaths (%) Study period Study fatality database Current National Fatality database
Barnard et al. (1973) [29] New York, United States of America Retrospective case review 400 Hymenoptera sting/venom (100) 10 years
(1966–1976)
Insect Sting Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI) United States Vital Statistic Data
Bock et al. (2001) [30] Denver and Yew York, United States of America Retrospective case review with interview family members about the details of the fatality 32 Food-induced anaphylaxis (100) 5 years
(1994–1999)
Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network and the AAAAI United States Vital Statistic Data
Bock et al. (2007) [5] Denver and Yew York, United States of America Retrospective case review with interview family members about the details of the fatality 31 Food-induced anaphylaxis (100) 5 years
(2001–2006)
Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network and the AAAAI United States Vital Statistic Data
Delage et al. (1972) [31] Washington D.C., United States of America Retrospective case review with clinic-pathologic data analysis 43 Drug-induced anaphylaxis (100) 15 years
(1957–1972)
Files of the National Armed Forces Institute of Pathology United States Vital Statistic Data
Greenberger et al. (2007) [6] Illinois, United States of America Retrospective case review with clinic-pathologic data analysis 25 Pharmacological agents (52), hymenoptera sting (24), food (16) 12 years
(1989–2001)
Office of the Medical Examiner of Cook County, Chicago, IL general mortality database United States Vital Statistic Data
James et al. (1964) [32] Boston, United Sates of America Retrospective case review with clinic-pathologic data analysis 6 Pharmacological agents (84), hymenoptera sting/venom (16) No data Local database United States Vital Statistic Data
Jerschow et al. (2014) [33] New York, United States of America Population-based epidemiologic study using ICD-10 CM diagnostic codes on death certificates 2458 Medications (58.8), unspecified (19.3), venom (15.2), food (6.7) 11 years
(1999–2010)
US National Mortality Database United States Vital Statistic Data
Lenler-Petersen P et al. (1994) [34] Copenhagen, Denmark Retrospective case review based on ICD code (“collapsus anaphilaticus”) on death certificates 30 Drug-induced anaphylaxis (100) 22 years
(1990–1968)
Danish Central Death Register Danish Central Death Register
Liew et al. (2009) [4] Melbourne, Australia Retrospective case review based on ICD-10 codes on death certificates 112 Food (6%), drugs (20),
probable drugs (38), insect stings (18),
undetermined (13), other (5)
8 years
(1997–2005)
National Hospital Morbidity
Database and National Mortality Database
National Mortality Database maintained by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Low et al. (2006) [35] Auckland, New Zealand Retrospective case review with clinic-pathologic data analysis 18 Drugs (56), Hymenoptera sting (22), food (11), undetermined (11) 20 years
(1985–2005)
Forensic Pathology Department database at Auckland City Hospital Forensic Pathology Department database at Auckland City Hospital
Ma et al. (2014) [36] Virginia, United States of America Population-based epidemiologic study using 3 national databases and selected ICD codes 186–225 deaths/year Unspecified (66–85), drugs (11–27), food (4–7) 10 years
(1999–2009)
Nationwide Inpatient Sample
(NIS; 1999–2009), the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS; 2006–2009), and Multiple Cause of Death Data (MCDD; 1999–2009)
US National Mortality Database
Mosbech H. (1983) [37] Denmark Population-based epidemiologic study based on ICD-8 code (E 905) on death certificates 26 Hymenoptera sting/venom (100) 20 years
(1960–1980)
Danish Central Death Register Danish Central Death Register
Pumphrey et al. (2000) [38] Manchester and Oxford, United Kingdom Retrospective case review with clinic-pathologic data analysis 164 Drugs (37.5), hymenoptera (34), food (28.5) 6 years
(1992–1998)
Office of
National Statistics (ONS) database
UK Office of
National Statistics (ONS) database
Sampson et al. (1992) [39] Connecticut, United States of America Retrospective series of cases study including food-induced anaphylaxis deaths in children and adolescents 6 Food-induced anaphylaxis (100) 14 months Local database US National Mortality Database
Sasvary et al. (1994) [40] Switzerland Retrospective series of cases study with clinic-pathologic data analysis 29 Hymenoptera sting/venom (100) 9 years
(1978–1987)
Local database Swiss National Mortality Database
Shen et al. (2009) [7] Maryland (United States) and Shanghai (China) Retrospective case review with clinic-pathologic data analysis 28 Drugs (57), food (21.5), unknown (10.7), hymenoptera (7.2), other (3.6) 3 years
(2004–2006)
Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for the State of Maryland
(OCME-MD) and the Department of Forensic Medicine at Shanghai Medical College (FM-SHMC)
US National Mortality Database
Simon et al. (2008) [41] Florida, United States of America Population-based epidemiologic study based on ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes on death certificates 89 Drugs and radio contrast media (34), hymenoptera (12), food (6) 10 years
(1996 to 2005)
Florida Department of Health, Office of Vital Statistics US National Mortality Database
Tanno et al. (2012) [10] São Paulo, Brazil Population-based epidemiologic study based on ICD-10 codes on death certificates 498 Drugs (42), insect bite (35), unspecified (21), food (2) 3 years
(2008–2010)
Brazilian Mortality Information System
(SIM)
Brazilian Mortality Information System
(SIM)
Turner et al. (2014) [42] United Kingdom Hospital admissions and fatalities caused by anaphylaxis data from national databases cross-checked against a prospective fatal anaphylaxis registry based on ICD-9 and ICD-10. 480 Drugs (54.8), food (25.8), insect sting (19.4) 20 years
(1992–2012)
Office of
National Statistics (ONS) database
UK Office of
National Statistics (ONS) database
Yilmaz et al. (2009) [8] Istanbul, Turkey Retrospective series of cases study with clinic-pathologic data analysis 36 Drug-induced anaphylaxis (100) 5 years
(2001–2006)
Council of Forensic Medicine database in Istanbul, Turkey The Council of Forensic Medicine
Yunginger et al. (1988) [43] Rochester, United States of America Retrospective series of cases study with laboratory investigation 7 Food-induced anaphylaxis (100) 16 months
(1987–1988)
Local database US National Mortality Database
Yunginger et al. (1991) [44] Maryland, Florida, Virginia; United States of America Prospective post-mortem case–control study with application of laboratory investigation protocol 19 Hymenoptera stings (47.3), foods (42.2), or diagnostic/therapeutic
agents (10.5)
No data Local database US National Mortality Database