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Table 4 The ATM Protein (reviewed in [110])

From: Ataxia telangiectasia: a review

• 3056 amino acids  
• Serine/Threonine protein kinase  
• Member of the family of PI3 Kinase-like Kinases (PIKKs)  
• Located primarily in the nucleus; smaller amounts in the cytoplasm and associated with mitochondria and peroxisomes [178]  
• Activated primarily by DSBs and oxidative stress, but also agents affecting chromatin organization, hypoxia, hypotonic stress and hyperthermia  
• Phosphorylates and regulates a variety of protein substrates involved in
o The DNA damage response (NHEJ and HRR) to DSBs
o Various other genotoxic stress responses
o DNA repair processes
o Cell cycle checkpoints
o Other cell stress responses
o Apoptosis
  1. NHEJ non-homologous end-joining, HRR homologous recombination repair