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Table 5 Treatment of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: drugs, dosages and main side effects [126, 127]

From: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: review of a rare autoimmune disease targeting antigens of melanocytes

Drug Dosage Main side effects
Corticosteroids   
 Prednisone or prednisolone 1–1.5 mg/kg/day, gradual tapering along a minimum 6 month-period hyperglicemia, hypertension, osteoporosis, Cushingoid appearance, myopathy, cataract, glaucoma
 Pulsetherapy of methylprednisolone 1 g/day during 3 days, followed by oral prednisone  
Antimetabolites   
 Azathioprine 1–2.5 mg/kg/day myelosuppression, gastrointestinal disturbances, infection
 Methotrexate 7.5–25 mg/week nausea, vomiting, abnormalities in liver function tests, infection
 Mycophenolate mofetil 1–3 g/day gastrointestinal disturbances with diarrhea, infection
Calcineurin inhibitors   
 Cyclosporine A up to 5 mg/kg/day, trough 0.1–0.2 μg/L (whole blood) nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, hirsutism, gum hyperplasia and neurological disorders
Biological agents   
 Infliximab (intravenous) 5 mg/kg at 0,2 and 6 weeks, followed by 5 mg/kg every 6–8 weeks reactivation of latent tuberculosis, lymphoproliferative diseases
 Adalimumab (SubQ) 40 mg every other week headache, infection
Alkylating agents   
 Cyclophosphamide 1–2 mg/kg/day myelossupression, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, loss of fertility, cancer risk, infection, bladder toxicity