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Table 5 Treatment of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: drugs, dosages and main side effects [126, 127]

From: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: review of a rare autoimmune disease targeting antigens of melanocytes



Main side effects



 Prednisone or prednisolone

1–1.5 mg/kg/day, gradual tapering along a minimum 6 month-period

hyperglicemia, hypertension, osteoporosis, Cushingoid appearance, myopathy, cataract, glaucoma

 Pulsetherapy of methylprednisolone

1 g/day during 3 days, followed by oral prednisone





1–2.5 mg/kg/day

myelosuppression, gastrointestinal disturbances, infection


7.5–25 mg/week

nausea, vomiting, abnormalities in liver function tests, infection

 Mycophenolate mofetil

1–3 g/day

gastrointestinal disturbances with diarrhea, infection

Calcineurin inhibitors


 Cyclosporine A

up to 5 mg/kg/day, trough 0.1–0.2 μg/L (whole blood)

nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, hirsutism, gum hyperplasia and neurological disorders

Biological agents


 Infliximab (intravenous)

5 mg/kg at 0,2 and 6 weeks, followed by 5 mg/kg every 6–8 weeks

reactivation of latent tuberculosis, lymphoproliferative diseases

 Adalimumab (SubQ)

40 mg every other week

headache, infection

Alkylating agents



1–2 mg/kg/day

myelossupression, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, loss of fertility, cancer risk, infection, bladder toxicity