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Table 1 Histopathological aspects and their clinical correspondents in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease [53, 54]

From: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: review of a rare autoimmune disease targeting antigens of melanocytes

Histopathologic findings Clinical correspondents/Ancillary exams
Diffuse granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate of choroid (lymphocytes, macrophages, epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells) In the acute and chronic stages:
Creamy white lesions in deep retina/choroid
Diffuse choroid thickening (US, EDI-OCT)
Dark dots (?) (ICGA)
Dalen-Fuchs nodules (conglomerate between Bruch’s membrane and RPE consisting of lymphocytes, pigment-laden macrophages, epithelioid cells, and proliferated RPE) In the acute stage:
Focal leakage at the RPE level (?) (FA)
Choroidal melanocytes without melanin granules In the convalescent stage:
“Sunset glow fundus” (diffuse depigmentation)
Focal RPE atrophy with retinal and choroidal adhesion In the convalescent stage:
Atrophic nummular hypopigmented lesions in the mid periphery
Window defect in FA (OCT)
RPE hyperplasia In the convalescent stage:
Pigment clumps (OCT, FAF (?))
RPE hyperplasia without melanin granules Subretinal fibrosis (OCT)
Degenerated photoreceptor Elipsoidal layer disruption (OCT)
Abnormal (ERG)
  1. US ultrasound, EDI-OCT enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography, ICGA indocyanine green angiography, RPE retinal pigment epithelium, FA fluorescein angiography, FAF fundus autofluorescence imaging, ERG electroretinography