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Table 1 Histopathological aspects and their clinical correspondents in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease [53, 54]

From: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: review of a rare autoimmune disease targeting antigens of melanocytes

Histopathologic findings

Clinical correspondents/Ancillary exams

Diffuse granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate of choroid (lymphocytes, macrophages, epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells)

In the acute and chronic stages:

Creamy white lesions in deep retina/choroid

Diffuse choroid thickening (US, EDI-OCT)

Dark dots (?) (ICGA)

Dalen-Fuchs nodules (conglomerate between Bruch’s membrane and RPE consisting of lymphocytes, pigment-laden macrophages, epithelioid cells, and proliferated RPE)

In the acute stage:

Focal leakage at the RPE level (?) (FA)

Choroidal melanocytes without melanin granules

In the convalescent stage:

“Sunset glow fundus” (diffuse depigmentation)

Focal RPE atrophy with retinal and choroidal adhesion

In the convalescent stage:

Atrophic nummular hypopigmented lesions in the mid periphery

Window defect in FA (OCT)

RPE hyperplasia

In the convalescent stage:

Pigment clumps (OCT, FAF (?))

RPE hyperplasia without melanin granules

Subretinal fibrosis (OCT)

Degenerated photoreceptor

Elipsoidal layer disruption (OCT)

Abnormal (ERG)

  1. US ultrasound, EDI-OCT enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography, ICGA indocyanine green angiography, RPE retinal pigment epithelium, FA fluorescein angiography, FAF fundus autofluorescence imaging, ERG electroretinography