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Table 3 Cognitive assessment adjusted means (±S.E.)

From: Selective cognitive and psychiatric manifestations in Wolfram Syndrome

  Normative average WFS T1DM HC p
   N M N M N M  
WTAR scaled scorec 100 14 104.1 ± 2.5 21 105.3 ± 2.0 18 109.2 ± 2.2 0.28
VIQc 100 14 111.8 ± 3.5 25 108.2 ± 2.6 24 108.8 ± 2.7 0.70
Spatial relations scaled scorec 100 17 107.1 ± 2.3 25 104.6 ± 1.9 25 110.7 ± 1.9 0.08
L-N sequencing scaled scorec 10 14 11.1 ± 0.7 25 12.1 ± 0.6 24 10.2 ± 0.6 0.06
Digit span scaled scorec 10 14 12.1 ± 0.9 25 10.9 ± 0.7 22 12.4 ± 0.7 0.27
CVLT short delay recall z-scorec 0 14 0.6 ± 0.2 23 0.1 ± 0.2 24 −0.1 ± 0.2 0.07
CVLT long delay recall z-scorec 0 14 0.7 ± 0.2a,b 23 0.0 ± 0.2 24 −0.1 ± 0.2 0.02*
CPT hit reaction t-scored 50 13 39.2 ± 2.5 25 38.8 ± 1.8 25 42.8 ± 1.8 0.27
CPT detectability t-scored 50 13 48.1 ± 2.7b 25 56.3 ± 1.9 25 53.3 ± 1.9 0.05*
UPSIT raw scoresc 35+ 19 23.6 ± 1.4a,b 25 31.0 ± 1.2 24 30.1 ± 1.2 <0.001*
  1. p values shown for the main effect of group in univariate GLM analyses for each measure after correcting for age and gender
  2. *significant at p < 0.05
  3. adifferent from HC group
  4. bdifferent from T1DM group
  5. chigher average = better performance
  6. dlower average = better performance