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Table 2 Polymorphisms previously reported to be associated with exercise related muscle injury

From: Rhabdomyolysis: a genetic perspective

Gene Exercise related symptoms rs# (dbSNP) Comments Ref
ACE Increased CK levels following eccentric exercise rs4340 Dose dependent increase of CK (II higher than ID) [102]
No association rs4340 - [101]
No association rs4340 - [100]
ACTN3 Exertion rhabdomyolysis rs1815739 TT genotype [100]
No association with CK/Mb changes rs1815739 TT genotype – lower baseline CK [104]
CCL2 Exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage following maximal eccentric exercise rs3917878, rs13900, rs1024611, rs1860189 rs3917878 – high CK response (women) and attenuated strength recovery (men) rs13900, rs1024611 and rs1860189 - abnormal preexercise CK level (women) [106]
CCR2 Exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage following maximal eccentric exercise rs3918358, rs768539, rs1799865, rs3918358 – slower strength recovery (women) rs1799865 – soreness rs1799865 – abnormal preexercise CK level (women) rs768539 and rs3918358 – preexercise strength (men) [106]
CKMM Exertion rhabdomyolysis rs1803285 GG genotype [100]
Increased CK following exertion rs1803285 AA genotype [101]
IGF-II Muscle damage following maximal isotonic eccentric contractions rs3213221, rs680, rs7924316, rs2132570 Strength loss, soreness and high CK (Muscle damage indicators) [105]
IL6 Increased CK levels following maximal eccentric exercise rs13447445 Dose dependent increase of CK (CC higher than CG genotypes) [107]
No association rs13447445 - [100]
MYLK No association rs2700352 - [100]
Muscle damage following maximal eccentric exercise rs2700352, rs28497577 GG has greater increase in CK and myoglobin following exercise, higher baseline strength AC greater increase CK following exercise, postexercise strength loss (no AA data) [104]
Exertion rhabdomyolysis rs28497577 AC or AA [100]
TNFA Increased CK levels following maximal eccentric exercise rs361525 Mild association [107]
  1. CK: creatine kinase, I: insertion - I allele; D: deletion - D allele; Ref: reference.