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Table 1 Co-morbidities and/or complications caused by major haemoglobin disorders

From: Haemoglobinopathies in Europe: health & migration policy perspectives

Thalassaemia major and intermedia Sickle-cell disease
Chronic Anaemia (if untreated) Chronic anaemia
  Acute anaemia (increase haemolysis, bone marrow suppression, blood loss, spleen sequestration, malarial infection, etc.)
Iron overload (from the disease or blood transfusion) and its complications in the cardiac, hepatic and endocrine system Adverse events related to hyperviscosity and vaso-occlusive crisis (Acute pain, acute chest syndrome, hyposplenism, nephropathy, proliferative retinopathy, etc.) and haemolysis and vasculopathy (Pulmonary hypertension; priapism, leg ulcers and cerebrovascular disease)
Increased risk of infections (mainly transfusion related e.g. Hepatitis B and C) Increased risk of infections related to hyposplenism (And to transfusions in transfused patients)
Bone abnormalities and osteoporosis Risk of osteonecrosis