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Table 4 Average treatment effects for the treated (excess costs) in € (per capita, in 2008)

From: The economic impact of Marfan syndrome: a non-experimental, retrospective, population-based matched cohort study

  Sickness fund perspective Societal perspective
  Marfan Control ATTa   AI SEb Marfan Control ATTa   AI SEb
Direct medical costs 4024 1695 2330 *** 273 4105 1739 2366 *** 278
  Outpatient treatment 780 512 268 *** 35 800 531 269 *** 35
  Pharmaceuticals 385 241 145 ** 46 349 222 127 ** 39
  Care by non-physicians 1315 472 843 *** 163 1353 501 851 *** 165
  Devices and medical appliances 142 76 66 *** 18 122 65 57 *** 15
  Inpatient treatment 1337 379 958 *** 164 1413 403 1010 *** 173
  Rehabilitation 66 14 52 *** 15 67 14 53 *** 16
  Medical services <1 1 −1   5 <1 1 −1   2
Direct non-medical costs 392 226 167 *** 36 7431 1556 5875 *** 116
  Administration 192 192 0   0 192 192 0   0
  Sick leave compensation 161 18 143 *** 34 n/a n/a n/a   n/a
  Travel expenses 39 15 24 *** 7 39 15 24 ** 9
  Other non-medical services <1 <1 <1   <1 <1 <1 <1   <1
  Informal family care n/a n/a n/a   n/a 7200 1349 5851 *** 116
Indirect costs n/a n/a n/a   n/a 10,329 2842 7487 *** 718
Total costs 4416 1920 2496 *** 286 21,865 6137 15,728 *** 824.4
Indicators for healthcare utilisation           
  Sick leave days 9.23 5.02 4.21 *** 1.11      
  Physician contacts 10.11 7.28 2.83 *** 0.26      
  Average length of stay 3.06 1.21 1.85 *** 0.52      
  Inpatient stays 0.39 0.18 0.21 *** 0.04      
  Prescriptions 8.70 6.52 2.18 *** 0.49      
  Average prescription cost 27.58 23.04 4.55   3.61      
  MRT/CT imaging 0.37 0.11 0.26 *** 0.05      
  1. aaverage treatment effect for the treated represents excess resource utilisation attributable to Marfan.
  2. bAbadie–Imbens standard errors take the uncertainty of the matching process into consideration [57].
  3. **< 0.01 ***< 0.001.