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Table 3 Clinical features, laboratory tests, and pancreatic morphology at diagnosis (From Ref. [54])

From: Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis

  Progression to CP Non-progression to CP P value
(n = 16) (n = 57)  
Clinical features Median (range)  
Observation period§ 102 (37–165) 87 (36–230) 0.522
 Age 66.5 (48–75) 65 (38–84) 0.989
 Gender (M/F) 13/3 43/14 0.748
 Alcohol (+/−) 6/10 29/28 0.405
 PSL (+/−) 13/3 50/7 0.681
 PSL maintenance therapy (+/−) 10/6 41/16 0.542
 Relapse (+/−) 8/8 12/45 0.030*
Laboratory tests   
 IgG 2140 (1166–3861) 2227 (892–7236) 0.509
 IgG4 421 (146–1845) 663 (4–2970) 0.267
 C3 100 (52–122) 98 (29–218) 0.551
 C4 21.8 (12.4–37.7) 21.1 (1.1–47.3) 0.495
 sIL2-R 726 (132–1845) 892 (257–4695) 0.053
 CIC 5 (1.9–13.9) 5.7 (1.4–40) 0.219
Pancreatic morphology at diagnosis   
Pancreatic swelling (by CT)    
 Head (+/−) 15/1 41/16 0.096
 Body (+/−) 12/4 36/21 0.553
 Tail (+/−) 10/6 37/20 1.000
 Level 1/Level 2Φ 8/8 30/27 1.000
Ductal narrowing in MPD (by ERP)    
 Head (+/−) 13/3 44/13 1.000
  Wirsung & Santorini (+/−) 11/5 34/23 0.573
 Body (+/−) 3/13 37/20 0.001*
 Tail (+/−) 12/4 42/15 1.000
 Level 1/Level 2Ψ 6/10 17/40 0.558
Ductal dilatation in MPD (+/−) 9/7 7/50 0.001*
  1. §Period from AIP diagnosis to the most recent observation (months).
  2. ΦSwelling was classified as level 1 (diffuse swelling) or level 2 (focal/segmental swelling) as defined by the International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis.
  3. ΨPancreatic duct narrowing was classified as level 1 (long [segmental/diffuse] or multiple strictures) or level 2 (focal narrowing) as defined by the International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis.
  4. * P < 0.05.
  5. CP: chronic pancreatitis, PSL: prednisolone, sIL2-R: soluble interleukin 2 receptor,
  6. CIC: circulating immune complex, MPD: main pancreatic duct.