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Table 4 Literature review of studies that have addressed ethnycity related differences according to phenotype and outcome of BD [7, 8, 10, 11, 1316]

From: Ethnicity and association with disease manifestations and mortality in Behçet’s disease

First author Country Year of publication Nb of patients Ethnicity Observations*
Wechsler Paris (France) 1988 196 French Men (n = 36) and North African men (n = 160). No significant difference
Zouboulis Allemangne 1997 196 Allemands (n = 82), Immigrés Turques (n = 86) patients originaires de pays étrangers autres (n = 28) Plus d’atteintes oculaires chez les patients du Sud-Est de l'Europe (Italie, Gèce) et de Turquie. 25% des patients avec évolution défavorable, 3 décès, tous Allemands.
Zouboulis Germany 1997 196 German (n = 82), Turkish immigrants (n = 86), and patients from other foreign countries (n = 28) Ocular disease is more frequent in South-Eastern European patients and in Turkish immigrants.
Muhaya Kurume (Japan) London (England) 2000 54 Japanese (n = 35) and British (n = 19) (including: 12 caucasians, 5 Middle Eastern, 1 African, 1 Asian) Kurume patients have more active anterior uveitis and more posterior uveitis than London patients.
Krause Tel Aviv (Israel) 2001 100 Jewish patients (n = 66) (most of them originated from Iran/Iraq, Turkey and North African countries) and Arabic patients (n = 34) Arabic patients have more severe ocular diseases. Jewish patients from North African countries have higher disease severity score.
Kotter Tübingen (Germany) 2004 65 German (n = 32) and Turkish descents (n = 33) No significant difference
Rozenbaum Northern area of Israel 2007 53 Arabs (n = 30) and Druzes (n = 23) Higher frequency of uveitis, of deep vein thrombosis, and of CNS involvement, and a higher global severity score in Arabs.
Mahr Seine-Saint-Denis County (France) 2008 79 European patients (n = 19) and non-European patients (n = 60). No significant difference
Mohammad Skåne (Sweden) 2012 40 Swedish ancestry (n = 12) and non-Swedish ancestry (28/40, 70%) [Middle East (n = 15), Africa (n = 2), East Asia (n = 2); Turkey (n = 2), Central and Eastern Europe (n = 6)] No significant difference
  1. *Difference with respect to phenotype or outcome of BD. CNS, central nervous system.