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Table 1 Leading causes of acute abdominal pain in SLE patients

From: Lupus enteritis: from clinical findings to therapeutic management

Non-SLE related SLE related
Appendicitis Lupus enteritis
Lithiasic cholecystitis Pancreatitis
Peptic ulcer Pseudo-obstruction
Acute pancreatitis Acalculous cholecystitis
Retroperitoneal hematoma Mesenteric thrombosis
Ovarian pathology Hepatic thrombosis
Diverticulitis Medication (NSAIDs, MMF, steroids, HCQ…)
Adhesions, intestinal occlusion Colon perforation (vasculitis)
Infectious Enteritis  
Pyelonephritis  
CMV colitis  
  1. SLE: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; NSAIDs: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; MMF: mycophenolate mofetil; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine.