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Table 2 Characteristics and assessment of the PAP cohort

From: Assessment and management of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a reference center

  n. % m ± sd
  73   
Age    41 ± 12.8 (yrs)
Gender    
Male 52 71  
Female 21 29  
Smoking status    
Current 16 22  
Former 33 45  
Never 24 33  
Exposures 1 26 36  
Symptoms at enrollment    
Symptomatic 69 95  
dyspnea2 49 67  
cough 23 31  
fever 8 11  
sputum production 1 1  
Asymptomatic 4 5  
Diagnostic procedures 3 69   
HR CT Scan 51 74  
Biopsy 41 56  
BAL 32 46  
GMAbs4 31 45  
Infection at enrollment 4 14 19  
Lung Function 5    
FVC 57   75.50 ± 21.1 (% predicted)
FEV1 57   77.77 ± 18.49 (% predicted)
TLC 57   75.38 ± 14.77 (% predicted)
DLCO 57   51.83 ±17.90 (% predicted)
PaO2 57   64.46 ± 14.17 (mm Hg)
ΔA-aO2 57   41.44 ± 16.25 (mm Hg)
Exercise Sat.O2 57   -4.27% ± 1.93
Biomarkers 6    
Cyfra 21-1 26   12.8 ± 14.6 (ng/mL) (nv: 0.0-3.3)
CEA 27   13.4 ± 13.4 (ng/mL) (nv: 0.0-5.0)
NSE 23   20.04 ± 6.9 (ng/mL) (nv: 0.0-15.0)
LDH 57   550.3 ± 248 (U/L) (nv: 230-460)
GMAbs 31   184.1 ± 175 (μg/ml) (nv < 3)
DSS 7 39   
1 2 5  
2 12 31  
3 13 33  
4 4 10  
5 8 21  
  1. 1Subjects exposed for work-related reasons to dust, smoke or gas of organic or inorganic origin. 2Patients may report more than one symptom.3No data available in 4/73 pts. More than one diagnostic tool was applied in 58 PAP patients (84%). Measurement of GMAbs began in 2004.4These include respiratory infections in 12 patients (4 Staph.aureus, 3 Str.pneumoniae, 1 Pn.jiroveci, 1 Kleb.pneumoniae, 1 Nocardia ast., 1 Serratia Marcesc., 1 Candida Alb) and 2 isolates of H.pilorii from gastric biopsy. 5Abbreviation legends: FVC: forced vital capacitiy; FEV1: forced expiratory flow in the first second; TLC: total lung capacity; DLCO: diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide; PaO2: arterial oxygen tension; ΔA-aO2: alveolar to arterial oxygen tension difference;%predicted: percentage of the predicted value; nv: normal value. 6Abbreviation legends: Cyfra 21-1: cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1; CEA: carcinoembrionic antigen; NSE: neuron specific enolase; LDH: lactate dehydrogenase. 7 DSS: disease severity score[10].