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Table 4 Sequelae of malformations associated with VACTERL association.

From: VACTERL/VATER Association

Feature Early potential medical complications Later (post-infant) potential medical complications Reference(s)
Vertebral anomalies Scoliosis, tethered cord, syrinx Progressive scoliosis, back pain, osteoarthritis, tethered cord, syrinx [21, 22]
Anal atresia Obstruction Incontinence, constipation, other dysmotility, sexual dysfunction [22, 73, 75]
Cardiac malformations Compromised cardiopulmonary function, dysrhythmias Compromised cardiac function, dysrhythmias [19, 22]
Tracheo-esophageal fistula Inability to feed, respiratory compromise, pneumonia Gastro-esophageal reflux, increased risk of gastro-esophageal cancers (related to reflux), reactive airway disease (can clinically appear similar to asthma, though pulmonary function testing reveals a non-asthma pattern) [22, 74]
Renal anomalies Vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, urinary tract infections (also related to anorectal malformations) Urinary tract infections (also related to anorectal malformations), nephrolithiasis, impaired renal function [22, 30]
Limb abnormalities Functional impairment Functional impairment [21, 22]
  1. Logically, the degree of medical complication arising from a particular malformation is highly dependent on the type and severity of the particular malformation.