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Table 7 Associations between periconceptional exposures to diabetes mellitus

From: Parental risk factors and anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

   Maternal diabetes mellitus  
Ref.    First author, year Exposure OR [95% CI] P value Adjustment/matching factors
[25]    Bánhidy, 2010 Gestational diabetes 2.2 [0.7, 6.8] - Adjusted for: maternal age and employment status, birth order and maternal hypertension
[34]    Correa, 2008 Diabetes mellitus**
Pre-gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes
2.15 [1.31, 3.55]
4.70 [1.55, 14.26]
1.91 [1.02, 3.56]
0.005
-
-
Adjusted for: maternal age, race/ethnicity, entry into prenatal care, BMI, study center and household income
[32]    Frías, 2007* Diabetes mellitus**
Pre-gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes
1.43 [0.92, 2.25]
2.87 [1.20, 6.87]
1.18 [0.71, 1.98]
0.13
0.04
0.48
-
[24]    Aberg, 2001 Pre-gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes
8.18 [3.86, 17.34]
3.29 [1.63, 6.63]
< 0.00001
0.0008
-
[7]    Correa, 2003 Diabetes mellitus 4.32 [1.50, 12.47] - Adjusted for: infant's period of birth, maternal race, age, education, prenatal cigarette smoking and prenatal alcohol consumption
[36]    Martínez-Frías, 1998 Gestational diabetes 1.51 [0.60, 3.55]
1.56 [0.49, 4.40]
1.27 [0.20, 5.54]
1.70 [0.67, 3.98]#
4.19 [0.66, 26.74]§
- -
[38]    Stoll, 1997 Diabetes mellitus 0.01 [0.02, 1.38] - -
[43]    Martínez-Frías, 1994* Pre-gestational diabetes 2.57 [0.69, 9.60] 0.19 -
  1. * Studies reported on the quotient of congenital anomaly frequencies only (frequency ratio: FR). We calculated the corresponding OR by data given in the articles.
  2. ** Studies reported on pre-gestational and gestational diabetes. We calculated the OR for any diabetes mellitus by data given in the articles.
  3. † Restricted to: maternal age (≤ 34 years)
  4. ‡ Restricted to: maternal age (≥35 years)
  5. # Restricted to: non-consanguineous parents
  6. § Restricted to: insulin treatment