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Table 4 Associations between periconceptional exposures to caffeine intake

From: Parental risk factors and anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

   Maternal caffeine exposure*  
Ref.    First author, year Exposure OR [95% CI] Adjustment/matching factors
[37]    Miller, 2009 < 10 mg
10-99 mg
100-299 mg
≥300 mg
1.0 Reference
1.4 [0.9, 2.3]
1.9 [1.2, 3.0]
1.5 [0.9, 2.7]
None of the variables met the criteria for confounding by the author; therefore, only the unadjusted odds ratios were presented
  1. * Caffeine intake per day in the year before pregnancy