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Table 3 Associations between periconceptional exposures to alcohol

From: Parental risk factors and anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

   Maternal alcohol use    Paternal alcohol use    
Ref.    First author, year Exposure OR [95% CI] P value Exposure OR [95% CI] P value Adjustment/matching factors
[39]    van Rooij, 2010 Alcohol consumption before or during pregnancy 1.0 [0.6, 1.5] 1.0 Alcohol consumption three
months before conception
1.3 [0.7, 2.5] 0.33 -
[37]    Miller, 2009* Non-drinker
Average ≤ 1.5 drink/day
Average > 1.5 drink/day
≥5 alcoholic drinks
Drank any alcohol
1.0 Reference
1.0 [0.7, 1.5]
1.2 [0.9, 1.6]
0.9 [0.6, 1.6]
0.9 [0.7, 1.2]
- - - - None of the variables met the criteria
for confounding by the author; therefore,
only the unadjusted odds ratios were presented
[38]    Stoll, 1997 Any alcohol 1.25 [0.07, 21.04] - - - - -
[30]    Yuan, 1995 Any alcohol 4.77 [1.39, 16.38] - - - - Matched by: maternal age groups (5-years interval),
sex, parity and season of birth
  1. * Exposure during the month before pregnancy to the third month of pregnancy.