Skip to main content

Table 2 Associations between periconceptional exposures to tobacco

From: Parental risk factors and anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Maternal smoking Paternal smoking Smoking of both parents  
Ref.    First author, year Exposure OR [95% CI] P value OR [95% CI] P value OR [95% CI] Adjustment/matching factors
[39]    van Rooij, 2010 Cigarette consumption before or during pregnancy 0.8 [0.5, 1.3] 0.61 1.8 [1.1, 2.9]§ 0.01 - -
[37]    Miller, 2009§§ Non-smoker not exposed to ETS
Non-smoker exposed to ETS at home or work
Non-smoker exposed to ETS at home and work
Smoked < 0.5 pack/day
Smoked ≥0.5 pack/day
Any smoking
1.0 Reference
1.1 [0.8, 1.5]
1.4 [0.5, 4.0]
1.0 [0.5, 1.8]
1.2 [0.8, 1.7]
1.1 [0.8, 1.6]
- -   - None of the variables met the criteria
for confounding by the author; therefore,
only the unadjusted odds
ratios were presented
[31]    Honein, 2001 Any smoking
1-5 cigarettes/day
6-10 cigarettes/day
11-20 cigarettes/day
≥21 cigarettes/day
PR: 1.19 [0.94, 1.50]
PR: 0.95 [0.60, 1.50]
PR: 1.38 [1.00, 1.90]
PR: 1.19 [0.80, 1.79]
PR: 0.94 [0.29, 2.98]
- -   - Adjusted for: maternal age,
education and race/ethnicity
[38]    Stoll, 1997 Any smoking 0.98 [0.94, 1.02] - -   - -
[27]    Cornel, 1996 Any smoking 2.24 [1.15, 4.16] 0.01 -   - -
[30]    Yuan, 1995 Any smoking - - 1.14 [0.59, 2.18] 0.70 1.75 [0.63, 4.87] Matched by: maternal age groups
(5-years interval), sex, parity
and season of birth
[33]    Shiono, 1986 Any smoking 0.41 [0.09, 1.87] 0.25 -   - -
[42]    Angerpointer, 1981 Any smoking
≥5 cigarettes per day
0.95 [0.45, 1.99]*
0.99 [0.46, 2.14]
1.20 [0.47, 3.10]
0.63 [0.25, 1.57]#
2.30 [1.00, 5.31]*
2.92 [1.16, 7.37]
1.58 [0.51, 4.83]#
0.89
0.98
0.70
0.32
-
-   - -
  1. * Control group includes 41 infants with esophageal atresia, 41 with stenosis/atresia of the small and large bowel, 75 with Hirschsprung's disease, 28 with omphalocele and 25 with gastroschisis
  2. † Control group includes 41 infants with esophageal atresia, 75 with Hirschsprung's disease, 28 with omphalocele and 25 with gastroschisis
  3. ‡ Control group includes 75 infants with Hirschsprung's disease
  4. # Control group includes 28 infants with omphalocele and 25 with gastroschisis
  5. § Paternal cigarette consumption 3 months before conception
  6. §§ Exposure during the month before pregnancy to the third month of pregnancy
  7. ETS = environmental tobacco smoke; PR = prevalence ratio