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Table 1 Infectious agents implicated in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (adapted from Mendoza-Pinto et al [5] and Kapsimali et al [36])

From: Hughes-Stovin Syndrome

Agent(s) Pertinent rationale or refutation for involvement in Behcet's disease
Hepatitis A, B, C, E viruses - Serological evidence of previous HAV, HCV and HEV infections not significantly different in patients with Behcet's disease as compared to controls.
- Previous HBV infection, however, seen in a significantly lower number of patients with Behcet's disease as compared with healthy controls.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) Anti-HSV-1 antibodies observed more commonly in patients with Behcet's disease than controls.
-DNA of HSV detectable in genital and intestinal ulcers but not in oral aphthous ulcers.
Parovirus B19 Parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies reported more in patients with Behcet's disease as compared to controls.
Helicobacter pylori Almost equal proportion of patients with Behcet's disease and controls had H. pylori infection following eradication therapy.
Chlamydia pneumoniae - IgG seropositivity for C. pneumoniae between cases and controls not significantly different.
- However, proportion of seropositive cases with higher IgG titres was greater.
Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus salivarius - Attenuation of skin and arthritic involvement in Behcet's disease after antibiotic administration.
- Hypersensitivity to cutaneous streptococcal antigens reported.
- Aggravation of symptoms after dental manipulations.
- Treatment of chronic oral infections impacts long term prognosis of disease positively.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Unclear role, distribution and pathogenetic relationship of ASCA antibodies in patients with Behcet's disease.
Heat shock proteins - Role for heat shock proteins of mycobacteria and streptococci suggested in Behcet's disease.
- Model of molecular mimicry thought to be responsible for manifestations of Behcet's disease.