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Table 1 Characteristics of countries. Source: OECD Health Data 2007 and EuroStat. All data for 2006 unless otherwise indicated.

From: No difference in between-country variability in use of newly approved orphan and non- orphan medicinal products - a pilot study

  Austria Finland Netherlands Sweden Denmark Portugal
Population (millions) (2006) 8.27 5.26 16.33 9.05 5.43 10.57
Population aged 65 and over (%) 16.3 15.9 13.8 17.3 15.1 17.0
GDP per capita (US Dollar) 34 394 30 911 35 112 32 111 34 110 20 030
Health expenditure as a share of GDP (%) 10.2 7.5 9.2 9.1 9.1 10.2
Pharmaceutical spending per capita (US Dollar PPP) 409 380 318 351 276 445
Pharmaceutical spending (% of GDP) 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.8 2.2
Automatic reimbursement for all marketed productsa No No No No No No
Pharmacoeconomic assessment required for reimbursement* Possibly Yes Only for innovative medicines Cost-effectiveness is one a criterion which determines reimbursement eligibility Not mandatory, sometimes used to justify a higher price Only for innovative medicines
Utilisation data source Claims data of the Austrian sickness fund (PEGASUS-SV) Ambulatory and hospital from the Finish National Agency for Medicines http://www.nam.fi Ambulatory data from the GIP database http://www.gipdatabank.nl Ambulatory data from
Apoteket
Ambulatory and hospital data from the Danish Medicines Agency http://www.medstat.dk Dispensing data of ambulatory care nationwide and IMS for hospital data (SIC-MED system)
Data type Reimbursement Dispensing Reimbursement Dispensing Dispensing Dispensing
  1. aPharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information (PPRI) report, the PPRI Network 2008. See http://ppri.oebig.at/
  2. GDP: Gross Domestic Product