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Table 2 Detailed classification of anorectal malformations (ARM)

From: Anorectal malformations

Non-syndromic ARM Non-syndromic ARM with fistula Recto-perineal malformations  
   Imperforate anus with recto-urethral fistula ◦ Recto-urethral bulbar fistula
◦ Recto-urethral prostatic fistula
◦ Bladderneck fistula
   Imperforate anus in female ◦ Recto-vestibular fistula
◦ Recto-vaginal fistula
◦ Cloacal malformation
  Non-syndromic ARM without fistula Imperforate anus without fistula  
  Complex ARM ◦ Cloacal malformations with a short common channel (< 3 cm)
   ◦ Cloacal malformations with a long common channel (> 3 cm)
   ◦ H-shaped fistula (recto-vaginal)
   ◦ Rectal duplication
Syndromic ARM VACTERL (Vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb anomalies)   
  MURCS (Mullerian duct aplasia, renal aplasia, and cervicothoracic somite dysplasia)   
  OEIS (Omphalocele, exstrophy, imperforate anus, and spinal defects)   
  Axial mesodermal dysplasia   
  Klippel-Feil syndrome   
  Sirenomelia-caudal regression   
  Trisomy 21   
  Trisomy 13   
  Trisomy 18   
  Pallister-Killian syndrome   
  Cat-eye syndrome   
  Parental unidisomy 16   
  Deletion 22q11 syndrome (del22q11.2)   
  Currarino syndrome   
  Pallister-Hall syndrome   
  Townes-Brock syndrome   
  Ulnar-mammary syndrome   
  Okihiro syndrome   
  Rieger syndrome   
  Thanatophoric dwarfism   
  Hirschsprung disease   
  Feingold syndrome   
  Kabuki syndrome   
  Optitz BBB/G syndrome   
  Johanson-Blizzard syndrome   
  Spondylocostal dysostosis   
  Short rib – polydactyly syndrome   
  Baller-Gerold syndrome   
  Ciliopathies   
  Fraser syndrome   
  Lowe syndrome   
  Heterotaxia   
  FG syndrome   
  X-linked mental retardation   
  MIDAS syndrome   
  Christian syndrome