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Table 1 Diagnostic criteria of SLE. Adapted from Tan et al, 1982 [1]. A person is said to have SLE if he/she meets any 4 of these 11 criteria simultaneously or in succession

From: Systemic lupus erythematosus

Criterion Definition/examples
1. Malar rash Fixed erythema over the malar eminences, tending to spare the nasolabial folds
2. Discoid rash Erythematosus raised patches, may scar
3. Photosensitivity Skin rash as a result of unusual reaction to sunlight
4. Oral ulcers Usually painless
5. Arthritis Non-erosive: Jaccoud's arthropathy
6. Serositis a) Pleuritis – pleuritic pain, pleural rub, pleural effusion b) Pericarditis – ECG changes, rub, pericardial effusion
7. Renal disorder a) Proteinuria (> 3+ or 0.5 g/day) b) Cellular casts in urine
8. Neurological disorder a) Seizures b) Psychosis
9. Haematological disorder a) Haemolytic anaemia b) Leukopaenia c) Lymphopaenia d) Thrombocytopaenia
10. Immunological disorder a) Anti-DNA antibodies b) Anti-Sm antibodies c) Anti-phospholipid antibodies
11. Anti-nuclear antibody Exclude drug causes