© Napolitano and Priori; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 31 August 2006
Accepted: 14 September 2006
Published: 14 September 2006
A novel clinical entity characterized by ST segment elevation in right precordial leads (V1 to V3), incomplete or complete right bundle branch block, and susceptibility to ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden cardiac death has been described by Brugada et al. in 1992. This disease is now frequently called "Brugada syndrome" (BrS). The prevalence of BrS in the general population is unknown. The suggested prevalence ranges from 5/1,000 (Caucasians) to 14/1,000 (Japanese). Syncope, typically occurring at rest or during sleep (in individuals in their third or fourth decades of life) is a common presentation of BrS. In some cases, tachycardia does not terminate spontaneously and it may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and lead to sudden death. Both sporadic and familial cases have been reported and pedigree analysis suggests an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. In approximately 20% of the cases BrS is caused by mutations in the SCN5A gene on chromosome 3p21-23, encoding the cardiac sodium channel, a protein involved in the control of myocardial excitability. Since the use of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the only therapeutic option of proven efficacy for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiac arrest, the identification of high-risk subjects is one of the major goals in the clinical decision-making process. Quinidine may be regarded as an adjunctive therapy for patients at higher risk and may reduce the number of cases of ICD shock in patients with multiple recurrences.
Brugada syndrome (BrS; OMIM 601144), or "Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation" as defined by some authors , is an autosomal dominant form of cardiac arrhythmia, presenting with a typical electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of ST segment elevation in leads V1 to V3, and incomplete or complete right bundle branch block . Syncope, typically occurring at rest or during sleep, is a common presentation of BrS , and it is caused by fast polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. In some cases, tachycardia does not terminate spontaneously. It may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and lead to sudden death.
The incomplete information concerning the genetic bases of BrS prevents a prevalence assessment among the general population. The current estimate is based upon ECG surveys among healthy subjects. These studies have been mostly done in the Asian population and only one has been carried out among Caucasians. The suggested prevalence ranges from 5/1,000 (Caucasians) to 14/1,000 (Japanese) [4–6]. The higher prevalence of the BrS ECG pattern in far eastern countries has been recently confirmed in a large clinical study  (see paragraph Genetic bases and pathophysiology). In this region the disease is thought to represent a frequent cause of sudden death among young individuals and is named as: lai-tai, pokkuri, sudden unexplained death syndrome, sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome.
BrS manifests with syncope and cardiac arrest, typically occurring in the third and fourth decade of life, and usually at rest or during sleep. In 1998 Brugada et al. presented data on 63 patients in whom, after a mean follow up of 34 ± 32 months, 34% of previously symptomatic (syncope and/or cardiac arrest) patients had recurrence, while a first cardiac event occurred in 27% of the asymptomatic individuals. These results called for an aggressive therapeutic strategy in all patients with BrS and, since no pharmacological treatment of proven efficacy was (and still is) available, it led to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implants in several young asymptomatic individuals. However, a different picture is emerging from more recent epidemiological surveys. In 2000, Priori et al. showed an incidence of 16% for the recurrence of a cardiac arrest in symptomatic patients, while none of the asymptomatic individuals at enrolment had a cardiac event after three years of follow up . The low incidence of events at follow up in the subgroup of patients who are asymptomatic at diagnosis has been subsequently confirmed by several authors [7, 9–12]. It is important to stress the concept that this figure might be biased by the fact that it is currently not known whether a Brugada-like ECG always indicates the presence of the disease or whether it is a non-specific finding in some cases.
BrS is characterized by a typical ECG pattern of incomplete or complete right bundle branch block and ST segment elevation (≥ 2 mm) in leads V1 through V3 with a "coved morphology". This pattern may be spontaneously evident or induced by a provocative pharmacological test with sodium channel blockers (Ajmaline or Flecainide). The diagnostic criteria for BrS have been recently updated and summarized in a consensus article . According to this document Brugada syndrome can be established in the presence of:
1) ST-segment elevation (type 1, figure 1) in more than one right precordial lead (V1 to V3), and one of the following: documented ventricular fibrillation; self terminating polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; a family history of sudden cardiac death (<45 years); coved type ECGs in family members; electrophysiological inducibility; syncope. There should be no other factor(s) that can account for the ECG abnormality.
2) Appearance of type 2 ST-segment elevation ("saddle-back type") (figure 1) in more than one right precordial lead upon challenge with a sodium channel blocker. A drug-induced ST-segment elevation to a value >2 mm should raise the possibility of Brugada syndrome when one or more clinical criteria are present (see the case 1 above).
3) Appearance of type 3 ST segment elevation in more than one lead under baseline conditions with conversion to type 1 after challenge with a sodium channel blocker is considered equivalent to case 1 above.
Genetic bases and pathophysiology
At the present time, only one BrS-related gene is known. Mutations in the cardiac sodium channel gene, SCN5A, on chromosome 3p21-23, were identified by Chen in 1998 . Interestingly, BrS is not the only phenotype linked to mutations in this gene. Known allelic disorders are: the LQT3 variant of Long QT syndrome  (OMIM 603830), the progressive cardiac conduction defect (PFHB, OMIM 113900) and the Sick sinus syndrome (SSS1; OMIM 608567) [16–18]. In vitro expression of mutant SCN5A proteins showed that BrS, PFHB and SSS1 are characterized by a loss of sodium channel function, whereas in LQT3 there is an excess of sodium inward current . To add to the complexity of the SCN5A-related phenotypes, overlapping syndromes have been also described in association with some specific SCN5A mutations that may cause the coexistence of LQT3 and BrS [19–21] or LQT3, BrS and PFHB in the same individuals [17, 22].
Unfortunately, SCN5A mutations account for approximately 20% of BrS cases . Only one additional locus (on chromosome 3p22-25 ) has been identified by linkage analysis in a single large family, but, despite screening of several candidates in the region, the corresponding gene has not been found.
A possible explanation of the race-specific differential prevalence of the BrS phenotype has been suggested by Bezzina et al. . Resequencing of the SCN5A promoter region allowed these authors to identify an Asian-specific haplotype: a six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) block not present among Caucasians, that is associated with lower transcription activity of the gene. The haplotype has an impressively high frequency of 0.22 in the Asian population and it is clinically associated with a reduced intraventricular conduction velocity. Thus, a constitutively reduced inward sodium current (INa) may be present and favor the high rate of occurrence of the BrS ECG pattern in far east countries.
Cardiac structural abnormalities in Brugada syndrome Genotype-phenotype relationship
In their initial report on eight patients, Brugada et al. emphasized the lack of structural cardiac abnormalities . However, at that time other authors had already reported the typical V1-V3 ST segment elevation and right bundle branch block in some patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC; OMIM 107970) [26, 27]., thus suggesting a possible overlap between these clinical entities.
More consistent data on a causal relationship between SCN5A mutations and structural abnormalities have been reported thereafter. The initial anecdotal cases of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)  and histological abnormalities  in SCN5A mutation carriers have been recently confirmed by systematic screening for this gene in DCM probands. These studies identified five allelic variants co-segregating with the phenotype [30, 31]. Finally, Frustaci et al. reported structural degeneration (fibrosis) and apoptosis during the analysis of myocardial biopsies of patients with a clinical diagnosis of Brugada syndrome and a SCN5A mutation . Taken as a whole, these studies strongly suggest that at least some SCN5A mutations manifest as both excitability and structural derangement. On a clinical basis, this possibility should always be considered and it advocates the need of careful echo and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies on all BrS patients.
The role of molecular diagnosis in BrS
SCN5A has a 6.048 Kb coding sequence spanning 28 exons. As of January 2006, approximately 160 SCN5A mutations had been reported, and approximately 65% of them are associated with a BrS phenotype, but no specific clustering within the coding region is demonstrable. No hot spots have been reported.
As a result of this genetic heterogeneity, the screening for known mutations is not feasible. Therefore, most of the molecular analysis laboratories usually screen the SCN5A coding region by performing single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) or denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), and DNA sequencing.
Establishing a diagnosis of BrS in an asymptomatic individual based on the ECG phenotype is a big responsibility for the clinician, as it implies informing a young "healthy" subject that they are at risk of sudden death and are at risk of generating affected offspring.
Molecular genetics may free the cardiologist from the burden of defining the diagnosis in difficult cases. This may be particularly important in conditions such as BrS that may present incomplete penetrance [34, 35]. In this case, the detection of a genetic defect within a family may represent the only tool for the identification of all those who are at risk of cardiac events and transmitting the disease to their offspring. This information has a direct impact on clinical management. Obviously, the limited yield of genetic testing in BrS does not allow diagnosis to be excluded in negative patients.
Furthermore, with the exception of a tendency for a more severe conduction delay among patients carrying a mutation in SCN5A , clinical manifestations do not differ between genotyped and not-genotyped patients, thus making genotyping an inappropriate method for risk stratification .
ST segment elevation in leads V1-V3 may be found during acute anterior myocardial infarction. In such instances, angina pectoris and myocardial necrosis markers – creatine kinase (CK), creatine phosphokinase-MB (CPK-MB), Troponin I and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) – are common findings and the differential diagnosis is easily established. Furthermore, there are several other disorders in which, although not constantly observed, ECG abnormalities resembling BrS may develop: arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy, Prinzmetal's variant angina, acute pericarditis/myocarditis, Friedreich's ataxia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, hypercalcemia/vitamin D intoxication, hyperkalemia, acute pulmonary thromboembolism, acute cholecystitis, transthoracic cardioversion, myotonic dystrophy type 1, Chagas disease, hypothermia, vomiting. Obviously, all of the above mentioned disorders should be considered in patients with suspected BrS.
Besides specific diseases, before BrS diagnosis can be definitely established, it is important to exclude drug-related causes of BrS-like ECG patterns. All antiarrhythmic drugs with a sodium channel blocking effect, especially class Ia and Ic drugs, must be avoided (asymptomatic BrS patients are often diagnosed incidentally after administration of one of these compounds to treat supraventricular arrhythmias). Other drugs reported to be potentially pro-arrhythmic in Brugada syndrome patients are:
Local anesthetics (non antiarrhythmic): bupivacaine ;
Alpha adrenergic agonists: methoxamine, noradrenaline ;
Beta-blockers: propranolol ;
Potassium channel activators: pinacidil ;
Parasympathetic agonists: acetylcholine ;
Ergot alkaloids: ergonovine ;
Tricyclic antidepressants ;
Opioid analgesics: propoxyphene ;
First-generation antihistamines: dimenhydrinate ;
Clinical management and risk stratification
Being affected by a genetically determined disease, BrS patients are exposed to a life-long risk of events, but the disease is usually characterized by very long (years) intervals of complete well-being between the cardiac events. Therefore, the implant of an ICD may remarkably impair quality of life and it is of utmost importance to precisely identify the subgroup of individuals in whom this aggressive therapeutic approach is mandatory because of their high-risk of cardiac events.
Treatment guidelines for Brugada syndrome clearly emphasize that patients who have already experienced a cardiac arrest should receive an ICD . However, these patients are in the minority, since most BrS patients are either asymptomatic or are referred with one or few syncopal spells in their clinical history. Risk stratification in these latter subgroups requires careful evaluation of the clinical presentation. Observational studies [23, 48]. on the natural history of BrS in large cohorts concordantly suggest that patients with a history of syncope plus a spontaneously abnormal ECG (i.e. independent of the provocative test with intravenous sodium channel blockers) have an approximately 6-fold higher risk of cardiac events (syncope and cardiac arrest) as compared with asymptomatic patients and patients in whom the diagnosis is established only after a provocative test. The presence of only spontaneous ST segment elevation was associated with a moderate risk of life-threatening events (Hazard Ratio 2.1) , while a history of syncope alone was not an independent predictor of outcome. These patients, as well as the silent gene carriers, belong to a low risk group. Although rare instances of life-threatening events may occur among this latter category, the most effective strategies for their identification remain to be established and the wide-spread use of ICD is not indicated, since device-related complications outweigh the benefits.
The role of programmed electrical stimulation (PES) as a risk stratification tool in Brugada syndrome is still a matter of debate. While some authors support it [13, 50], others have provided experimental evidence suggesting a poor predictive value and low reproducibility [23, 51] Several factors have been advocated to explain this discrepancy  and two prospective studies (that are likely to provide a definitive answer to this issue) are now ongoing, one in the USA and one in Italy.
Quinidine, a non-specific blocker of cardiac transient outward current (Ito) has been proposed as a gene-specific therapy for BrS. This proposal is based on the idea that the loss of sodium inward current in BrS, tilts the balance between outward and inward currents, with an abnormal shift in the outward direction at the end of phase 1 of the action potential. Since transmural distribution of transient inward current is not uniform, this condition creates a dispersion of repolarization and arrhythmogenic substrate . By blocking repolarizing currents, and specifically Ito, which is active during the initial phases of the action potential, quinidine could restore the equilibrium . Based on this appealing theory, some authors have attempted a gene-specific therapeutic approach for BrS.
The available clinical data show that quinidine prevents arrhythmia inducibility at PES in up to 76% of BrS patients [55–57] and suggest a positive long-term effect in preventing the occurrence of spontaneous arrhythmias . Although no final proof of effectiveness is available, quinidine may be regarded as an adjunctive therapy for patients at higher risk and may reduce the number of cases of ICD shock in patients with multiple recurrences.
- Priori SG: Foretelling the future in Brugada syndrome: do we have the crystal ball?. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2001, 12: 1008-1009. 10.1046/j.1540-8167.2001.01008.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Brugada P, Brugada J: Right bundle branch block, persistent ST segment elevation and sudden cardiac death: a distinct clinical and electrocardiographic syndrome. A multicenter report. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992, 20: 1391-1396.View ArticlePubMed
- Wilde AA, Priori SG: Brugada syndrome and sudden death. Eur Heart J. 2000, 21: 1483-10.1053/euhj.2000.2231.View ArticlePubMed
- Hermida JS, Lemoine JL, Aoun FB, Jarry G, Rey JL, Quiret JC: Prevalence of the brugada syndrome in an apparently healthy population. Am J Cardiol. 2000, 86: 91-94. 10.1016/S0002-9149(00)00835-3.View ArticlePubMed
- Furuhashi M, Uno K, Tsuchihashi K, Nagahara D, Hyakukoku M, Ohtomo T, Satoh S, Nishimiya T, Shimamoto K: Prevalence of asymptomatic ST segment elevation in right precordial leads with right bundle branch block (Brugada-type ST shift) among the general Japanese population. Heart. 2001, 86: 161-166. 10.1136/heart.86.2.161.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Miyasaka Y, Tsuji H, Yamada K, Tokunaga S, Saito D, Imuro Y, Matsumoto N, Iwasaka T: Prevalence and mortality of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram in one city in Japan. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001, 38: 771-774. 10.1016/S0735-1097(01)01419-X.View ArticlePubMed
- Ito H, Yano K, Chen R, He Q, Curb JD: The prevalence and prognosis of a Brugada-type electrocardiogram in a population of middle-aged Japanese-American men with follow-up of three decades. Am J Med Sci. 2006, 331: 25-29. 10.1097/00000441-200601000-00008.View ArticlePubMed
- Priori SG, Napolitano C, Gasparini M, Pappone C, Della BP, Brignole M, Giordano U, Giovannini T, Menozzi C, Bloise R, Crotti L, Terreni L, Schwartz PJ: Clinical and genetic heterogeneity of right bundle branch block and ST-segment elevation syndrome: A prospective evaluation of 52 families. Circulation. 2000, 102: 2509-2515.View ArticlePubMed
- Atarashi H, Ogawa S, Harumi K, Sugimoto T, Inoue H, Murayama M, Toyama J, Hayakawa H: Three-year follow-up of patients with right bundle branch block and ST segment elevation in the right precordial leads: Japanese Registry of Brugada Syndrome. Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001, 37: 1916-1920. 10.1016/S0735-1097(01)01239-6.View ArticlePubMed
- Takenaka S, Kusano KF, Hisamatsu K, Nagase S, Nakamura K, Morita H, Matsubara H, Emori T, Ohe T: Relatively benign clinical course in asymptomatic patients with brugada-type electrocardiogram without family history of sudden death. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2001, 12: 2-6. 10.1046/j.1540-8167.2001.00002.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Brugada J, Brugada R, Brugada P: Right bundle-branch block and ST-segment elevation in leads V1 through V3: a marker for sudden death in patients without demonstrable structural heart disease. Circulation. 1998, 97: 457-460.View ArticlePubMed
- Brugada J, Brugada R, Brugada P: Determinants of sudden cardiac death in individuals with the electrocardiographic pattern of Brugada syndrome and no previous cardiac arrest. Circulation. 2003, 108: 3092-3096. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000104568.13957.4F.View ArticlePubMed
- Antzelevitch C, Brugada P, Borggrefe M, Brugada J, Brugada R, Corrado D, Gussak I, LeMarec H, Nademanee K, Perez Riera AR, Shimizu W, Schulze-Bahr E, Tan H, Wilde A: Brugada syndrome: report of the second consensus conference. Circulation. 2005, 111: 659-670. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000152479.54298.51.View ArticlePubMed
- Chen Q, Kirsch GE, Zhang D, Brugada R, Brugada J, Brugada P, Potenza D, Moya A, Borggrefe M, Breithardt G, Ortiz-Lopez R, Wang Z, Antzelevitch C, O'Brien RE, Schulze-Bahr E, Keating MT, Towbin JA, Wang Q: Genetic basis and molecular mechanism for idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. Nature. 1998, 392: 293-296. 10.1038/32675.View ArticlePubMed
- Wang Q, Shen J, Splawski I, Atkinson D, Li Z, Robinson JL, Moss AJ, Towbin JA, Keating MT: SCN5A mutations associated with an inherited cardiac arrhythmia, long QT syndrome. Cell. 1995, 80: 805-811. 10.1016/0092-8674(95)90359-3.View ArticlePubMed
- Kyndt F, Probst V, Potet F, Demolombe S, Chevallier JC, Baro I, Moisan JP, Boisseau P, Schott JJ, Escande D, Le Marec H: Novel SCN5A mutation leading either to isolated cardiac conduction defect or Brugada syndrome in a large French family. Circulation. 2001, 104: 3081-3086.View ArticlePubMed
- Schott JJ, Alshinawi C, Kyndt F, Probst V, Hoorntje TM, Hulsbeek M, Wilde AA, Escande D, Mannens MM, Le Marec H: Cardiac conduction defects associate with mutations in SCN5A. Nat Genet. 1999, 23: 20-21. 10.1038/12618.View ArticlePubMed
- Benson DW, Wang DW, Dyment M, Knilans TK, Fish FA, Strieper MJ, Rhodes TH, George AL Jr: Congenital sick sinus syndrome caused by recessive mutations in the cardiac sodium channel gene (SCN5A). J Clin Invest. 2003, 112: 1019-1028. 10.1172/JCI200318062.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Rivolta I, Abriel H, Tateyama M, Liu H, Memmi M, Vardas P, Napolitano C, Priori SG, Kass RS: Inherited brugada and LQT-3 syndrome mutations of a single residue of the cardiac sodium channel confer distinct channel and clinical phenotypes. J Biol Chem. 2001, 276: 30623-30630. 10.1074/jbc.M104471200.View ArticlePubMed
- Priori SG, Napolitano C, Schwartz PJ, Bloise R, Crotti L, Ronchetti E: The elusive link between LQT3 and brugada syndrome: the role of flecainide challenge. Circulation. 2000, 102: 945-947.View ArticlePubMed
- Bezzina C, Veldkamp MW, van Den Berg MP, Postma AV, Rook MB, Viersma JW, van Langen IM, Tan-Sindhunata G, Bink-Boelkens MT, Der Hout AH, Mannens MM, Wilde AA: A single Na(+) channel mutation causing both long-QT and Brugada syndromes. Circ Res. 1999, 85: 1206-1213.View ArticlePubMed
- Grant AO, Carboni MP, Neplioueva V, Starmer F, Memmi M, Napolitano C, Priori SG: A spontaneous mutation identifies a residue critical for closed-state inactivation of cardiac sodium channels [abstract]. Circulation. 2001, 104 (suppl II): 310.
- Priori SG, Napolitano C, Gasparini M, Pappone C, Bella PD, Giordano U, Bloise R, Giustetto C, De Nardis R, Grillo M, Ronchetti E, Faggiano G, Nastoli J: Natural history of Brugada syndrome: insights for risk stratification and management. Circulation. 2002, 105: 1342-1347. 10.1161/hc1102.105288.View ArticlePubMed
- Brugada P, Brugada R, Brugada J: Sudden death in patients and relatives with the syndrome of right bundle branch block, ST segment elevation in the precordial leads V(1)to V(3)and sudden death. Eur Heart J. 2000, 21: 321-326. 10.1053/euhj.1999.1751.View ArticlePubMed
- Bezzina CR, Shimizu W, Yang P, Koopmann TT, Tanck MW, Miyamoto Y, Kamakura S, Roden DM, Wilde AA: Common sodium channel promoter haplotype in asian subjects underlies variability in cardiac conduction. Circulation. 2006, 113: 338-344. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.580811.View ArticlePubMed
- Martini B, Nava A, Thiene G, Buja GF, Canciani B, Scognamiglio R, Daliento L, Dalla VS: Ventricular fibrillation without apparent heart disease: description of six cases. Am Heart J. 1989, 118: 1203-1209. 10.1016/0002-8703(89)90011-2.View ArticlePubMed
- Martini B, Nava A, Canciani B, Thiene G: Right bundle branch block, persistent ST segment elevation and sudden cardiac death. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993, 22: 633.View ArticlePubMed
- McNair WP, Ku L, Taylor MR, Fain PR, Dao D, Wolfel E, Mestroni L: SCN5A mutation associated with dilated cardiomyopathy, conduction disorder, and arrhythmia. Circulation. 2004, 110: 2163-2167. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000144458.58660.BB.View ArticlePubMed
- Bezzina CR, Rook MB, Groenewegen WA, Herfst LJ, van der Wal AC, Lam J, Jongsma HJ, Wilde AA, Mannens MM: Compound heterozygosity for mutations (W156X and R225W) in SCN5A associated with severe cardiac conduction disturbances and degenerative changes in the conduction system. Circ Res. 2003, 92: 159-168. 10.1161/01.RES.0000052672.97759.36.View ArticlePubMed
- Carveth SW, Olson D, Bechtel J: Proceedings: Emergency medical care system. Lincoln (Beb) mobile heart team. Arch Surg. 1974, 108: 528-530.View ArticlePubMed
- Olson TM, Michels VV, Ballew JD, Reyna SP, Karst ML, Herron KJ, Horton SC, Rodeheffer RJ, Anderson JL: Sodium channel mutations and susceptibility to heart failure and atrial fibrillation. JAMA. 2005, 293: 447-454. 10.1001/jama.293.4.447.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Frustaci A, Priori SG, Pieroni M, Chimenti C, Napolitano C, Rivolta I, Sanna T, Bellocci F, Russo MA: Cardiac histological substrate in patients with clinical phenotype of Brugada syndrome. Circulation. 2005, 112: 3680-3687. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.520999.View ArticlePubMed
- Priori SG, Napolitano C, Grillo M: Concealed arrhythmogenic syndromes: the hidden substrate of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation?. Cardiovasc Res. 2001, 50: 218-223. 10.1016/S0008-6363(01)00224-3.View ArticlePubMed
- Priori SG, Bloise R, Napolitano C, Nastoli J, Giordano U, Folli R, Vicentini A, Faggiano G: Clinical characterization of the genetic variant of Brugada syndrome associated with SCN5A mutations [abstract]. Circulation. 2001, 104 (suppl II): 461.
- Smits JP, Eckardt L, Probst V, Bezzina CR, Schott JJ, Remme CA, Haverkamp W, Breithardt G, Escande D, Schulze-Bahr E, LeMarec H, Wilde AA: Genotype-phenotype relationship in Brugada syndrome: electrocardiographic features differentiate SCN5A-related patients from non-SCN5A-related patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002, 40: 350-356. 10.1016/S0735-1097(02)01962-9.View ArticlePubMed
- Phillips N, Priestley M, Denniss AR, Uther JB: Brugada-type electrocardiographic pattern induced by epidural bupivacaine. Anesth Analg. 2003, 97: 264-267. 10.1213/01.ANE.0000067410.32384.3A.View ArticlePubMed
- Littmann L, Monroe MH, Svenson RH: Brugada-type electrocardiographic pattern induced by cocaine. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000, 75: 845-849.View ArticlePubMed
- Miyazaki T, Mitamura H, Miyoshi S, Soejima K, Aizawa Y, Ogawa S: Autonomic and antiarrhythmic drug modulation of ST segment elevation in patients with Brugada syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996, 27: 1061-1070. 10.1016/0735-1097(95)00613-3.View ArticlePubMed
- Kimura M, Kobayashi T, Owada S, Ashikaga K, Higuma T, Sasaki S, Iwasa A, Motomura S, Okumura K: Mechanism of ST elevation and ventricular arrhythmias in an experimental Brugada syndrome model. Circulation. 2004, 109: 125-131. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000105762.94855.46.View ArticlePubMed
- Noda T, Shimizu W, Taguchi A, Satomi K, Suyama K, Kurita T, Aihara N, Kamakura S: ST-segment elevation and ventricular fibrillation without coronary spasm by intracoronary injection of acetylcholine and/or ergonovine maleate in patients with Brugada syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002, 40: 1841-1847. 10.1016/S0735-1097(02)02494-4.View ArticlePubMed
- Goldgran-Toledano D, Sideris G, Kevorkian JP: Overdose of cyclic antidepressants and the Brugada syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2002, 346: 1591-1592. 10.1056/NEJM200205163462020.View ArticlePubMed
- Whitcomb DC, Gilliam FR, Starmer CF, Grant AO: Marked QRS complex abnormalities and sodium channel blockade by propoxyphene reversed with lidocaine. J Clin Invest. 1989, 84: 1629-1636.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Darbar D, Yang T, Churchwell K, Wilde AA, Roden DM: Unmasking of brugada syndrome by lithium. Circulation. 2005, 112: 1527-1531. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.548487.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Pastor A, Nunez A, Cantale C, Cosio FG: Asymptomatic brugada syndrome case unmasked during dimenhydrinate infusion. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2001, 12: 1192-1194. 10.1046/j.1540-8167.2001.01192.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Vernooy K, Delhaas T, Cremer OL, Di Diego JM, Oliva A, Timmermans C, Volders PG, Prinzen FW, Crijns HJ, Antzelevitch C, Kalkman CJ, Rodriguez LM, Brugada R: Electrocardiographic changes predicting sudden death in propofol-related infusion syndrome. Heart Rhythm. 2006, 3: 131-137. 10.1016/j.hrthm.2005.11.005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Priori SG, Aliot E, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, Bossaert L, Breithardt G, Brugada P, Camm JA, Cappato R, Cobbe SM, Di Mario C, Maron BJ, McKenna WJ, Pedersen AK, Ravens U, Schwartz PJ, Trusz-Gluza M, Vardas P, Wellens HJ, Zipes DP: Update of the guidelines on sudden cardiac death of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2003, 24: 13-15. 10.1016/S0195-0668X(02)00809-6.View ArticlePubMed
- Brugada P, Brugada R, Mont L, Rivero M, Geelen P, Brugada J: Natural history of Brugada syndrome: the prognostic value of programmed electrical stimulation of the heart. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2003, 14: 455-457. 10.1046/j.1540-8167.2003.02517.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Priori SG, Grillo M, Napolitano C, Faggiano G, Barbaro C, Gasparini M, Manozzi C: Epidemiology of Brugada Syndrome: A prospective Evaluation of 192 Individuals [abstract]. Circulation. 2001, 104 (suppl II): 540.
- Brugada P, Geelen P, Brugada R, Mont L, Brugada J: Prognostic value of electrophysiologic investigations in Brugada syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2001, 12: 1004-1007. 10.1046/j.1540-8167.2001.01004.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Gasparini M, Priori SG, Mantica M, Coltorti F, Galimberti P, Ceriotti C, Napolitano C, Bloise R: Provocative tests in the Brugada syndrome: do we have the right tools? [abstract]. Circulation. 2000, 102 (suppl2): 677.
- Priori SG, Napolitano C: Should patients with an asymptomatic Brugada electrocardiogram undergo pharmacological and electrophysiological testing?. Circulation. 2005, 112: 279-292. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.485326.View ArticlePubMed
- Antzelevitch C: The Brugada syndrome: ionic basis and arrhythmia mechanisms. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2001, 12: 268-272. 10.1046/j.1540-8167.2001.00268.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Yan GX, Antzelevitch C: Cellular basis for the Brugada syndrome and other mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis associated with ST-segment elevation. Circulation. 1999, 100: 1660-1666.View ArticlePubMed
- Belhassen B, Viskin S, Fish R, Glick A, Setbon I, Eldar M: Effects of electrophysiologic-guided therapy with Class IA antiarrhythmic drugs on the long-term outcome of patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation with or without the Brugada syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1999, 10: 1301-1312.View ArticlePubMed
- Hermida JS, Denjoy I, Clerc J, Extramiana F, Jarry G, Milliez P, Guicheney P, Di Fusco S, Rey JL, Cauchemez B, Leenhardt A: Hydroquinidine therapy in Brugada syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004, 43: 1853-1860. 10.1016/j.jacc.2003.12.046.View ArticlePubMed
- Belhassen B, Glick A, Viskin S: Efficacy of quinidine in high-risk patients with Br ugada syndrome. Circulation. 2004, 110: 1731-1737. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000143159.30585.90.View ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.